Quy Chuẩn QCVN 06:2022/BXD NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON FIRE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

MINISTRY OF CONSTRUCTION OF VIETNAM
——-
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM
Independence – Freedom – Happiness
—————-
No. 06/2022/TT-BXD Hanoi, November 30, 2022

CIRCULAR

ON THE QCVN 06:2022/BXD
NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON FIRE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

Pursuant to the Law on Technical Regulations and Standards dated June 29, 2006;

Pursuant to No. 127/2007/ND-CP dated August 01, 2007 of the Government elaborating the implementation of the Law on Technical Regulations and Standards and Decree No. 78/2018/ND-CP dated May 16, 2018 of the Government on amendment to the Decree No. 127/2007/ND-CP;

Pursuant to Decree No. 52/2022/ND-CP dated August 8, 2022 of the Government on functions, tasks, powers, and organizational structures of Ministry of Construction;

At request of Director of the Science – Technology and Environment Department;

The Minister of Construction promulgates Circular on National technical regulation on Fire safety for Buildings and Constructions

Article 1. The QCVN 06:2022/BXD National technical regulation on Fire safety for Buildings and Constructions is attached hereto.

Article 2. This Circular comes into force from January 16, 2023 and replaces Circular No. 02/2021/TT-BXD dated May 19, 2021 of the Minister of Construction promulgating the QCVN 06:2021/BXD National technical Regulation on Fire safety for buildings and constructions.

Article 3. Ministries, ministerial agencies, Governmental agencies, People’s Committees of provinces and central-affiliated cities, and relevant organizations, individuals are responsible for the implementation of this Circular./.

 

PP. MINISTER
DEPUTY MINISTER
Le Quang Hung

 

QCVN 06:2022/BXD

NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON FIRE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

2 FIRE-RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSIFICATIONS

3 HUMAN SAFETY ASSURANCE

4 FLAME SPREAD PREVENTION

5 WATER SUPPLY FOR FIREFIGHTING

6 FIREFIGHTING AND RESCUE

7 ORGANIZING IMPLEMENTATION

APPENDIX A (regulations) ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS FOR SPECIFIC GROUPS OF BUILDINGS

APPENDIX B (regulations) CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS BASED ON FIRE-RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIALS

APPENDIX C (regulations) FIRE AND EXPLOSION RISK CLASSES OF BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTIONS, ROOMS WITH MANUFACTURING AND STORAGE PURPOSES

APPENDIX D (regulations) SMOKE PROTECTION

APPENDIX E (regulations) FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE

APPENDIX F (regulations) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF SEVERAL MODULES

APPENDIX G (regulations) DISTANCE TO EXIT ACCESSES AND WIDTH OF EXIT ACCESSES

APPENDIX H (regulations) FIRE RESISTANCE CATEGORY AND FIRE SAFETY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS OF BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTIONS, AND FIRE COMPARTMENTS

APPENDIX I (for reference) ILLUSTRATIONS

 

Preface

The QCVN 06:2022/BXD is developed by the Construction Science and Technology Institute (Ministry of Construction), jointly compiled by Vietnam Fire and Rescue Police Department (Ministry of Public Security), presented to the Ministry of Science and Technology for approval by the Science – Technology and Environment Department (Ministry of Construction), and issued under Circular No.06/2022/TT-BXD dated November 30, 2022 of the Minister of Construction.

The QCVN 06:2022/BXD replaces the QCVN 06:2021/BXD attached under Circular No. 02/2021/TT-BXD dated May 19, 2021 of the Minister of Construction.

 

NATIONAL TECHNICAL REGULATION ON FIRE SAFETY OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTIONS

1 GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1 Scope

1.1.1 This Regulation prescribes

  1. a) General fire safety requirements of rooms, fire compartments, buildings, and constructions (hereinafter referred to as “buildings”);
  2. b) Fire-related technical classifications of construction materials, structural elements, parts and components of buildings, and buildings.

1.1.2 This Regulation applies to the following buildings and constructions:

  1. a) Houses: apartment buildings and tenements with up to 150 m of fire height and no more than 3 basements; detached houses with at least 7 storeys or more than 1 basement and up to 3 basements, detached houses also serving production, business purposes where floor area for production, business purposes accounts for more than 30% of floor area;

NOTE: If detached houses are repurposed, this Regulation and relevant law provisions must be complied with

  1. b) Public buildings with up to 150 m in fire height and no more than 3 basements (other than constructions used as places of worship, religious establishments; heritages); outdoor sports venues with bleachers (stadiums, sports competition and training grounds, and similar);
  2. c) Manufacturing facilities and warehouses with up to 50 m in fire height and no more than 1 basement;
  3. d) Providers of technical infrastructure facilities and amenities with up to 50 m in fire height and no more than 1 basement;
  4. e) Buildings serving transport purposes with up to 50 m in fire height and no more than 3 basements;
  5. f) Buildings serving agriculture and rural development purposes (other than nurseries and greenhouses and the likes).

NOTE: Construction classification shall conform to relevant law provisions. See Schedule 6 for specific constructions under 1.1.2.

1.1.3 In regard to buildings classified under fire risk categories F1.2, F1.3, F4.2, F4.3 by functions and multipurpose buildings with more than 150 m in fire height or at least 4 basements and buildings with fire prevention and fire protection properties different from those named under Schedule 6, in addition to adhering to this Regulation, other technical requirements and solutions pertaining to organization and building engineering appropriate to specific fire prevention and fire protection properties of these buildings must also be complied with on the basis of applied standard documents.

NOTE: In regard to buildings using their 4th and 5th basements as parking spaces, regulations pertaining to underground parking garages must also be complied with in addition to this Regulation.

1.1.4 This Regulation applies to new construction of buildings and constructions named under 1.1.2 or:

  1. a) Renovation and repair which alter occupancies of rooms, fire compartments, or buildings;
  2. b) Renovation and repair which alter egress solutions of rooms, fire compartments, or buildings;
  3. c) Renovation and repair which raise fire risk of construction materials or reduce fire-resistance rating of structures, structural elements;
  4. d) Renovation and repair which alter fire risk class or fire and explosion class of rooms, fire compartments, and buildings in a way that fire risk of those locations is increased;
  5. e) Renovation and repair which raise fire safety requirements of rooms, fire compartments, and buildings;
  6. f) Renovation and repair of fire protection systems of fire compartments and buildings;
  7. g) Other renovation and repair according to instructions of competent fire and rescue police department.

1.1.5 Section 2 through 6 do not apply to buildings with special occupancies (buildings and constructions associated with technology line of power generating facilities such as: hydroelectricity power plant, thermoelectricity power plant; wind power plant, solar power plant, geothermal power plant, tidal power plant, waste-to-energy plant, biomass power plant; biogas power plant; cogeneration power plant, air traffic control tower, manufacturing facilities or preservation facilities of explosive substances and materials; storage of petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas, flammable gas, and pyrophoric substances; filling stations of gas and oil, flammable liquid, flammable gas; manufacturing facilities or storage of toxic chemicals; national defense and security constructions; underground sections of subways; mines, and buildings with similar features).

1.1.6 Section 5 also does not apply to:

  1. a) Facilities, buildings, and constructions for preservation and processing of cereal;
  2. b) Boiler facilities generating heat; electrical grid facilities;
  3. c) Firefighting systems for fire of metal, strong chemically active substances and materials which when react to water will explode, create flammable gas and exothermic reactions, such as: compounds between aluminum – organic substances, alkali metal, compounds between lithium – organic substances, lead azide, hydrides of aluminium, zinc, magnesium, sulfuric acid, titanium chloride, thermite.

1.1.7 Fire prevention and fire protection requirements of construction standards must be based on requirements of this Regulation.

In addition to this Regulation, other specific fire prevention and firefighting requirements under other standards applicable to specific buildings and constructions must also be adequately complied with. If no other specific standards that are based on this Regulation are issued, regulations under applicable standards still prevail until said standards are reviewed. Applicable standards of foreign countries are also allowed as long as this Regulation, other Vietnamese regulations and law on fire prevention and firefighting, and regulations on adoption of foreign standards in construction activities in Vietnam are adhered to.

If specific technical regulations and requirements under applicable standards pertaining to fire prevention and fire protection are less safe than those under this Regulation, those under this Regulation shall prevail.

1.1.8 Fire safety design documents and fire safety technical documents of buildings, structures, structural elements, and construction materials must specify fire-related technical characteristics of these structures in accordance with this Regulation.

1.1.9 When designing buildings and constructions, other mandatory regulations and technical requirements according to applicable laws must be complied with in addition to complying with this Regulation, such as: planning, architecture, structures, water supply and drainage system, electrical system, electrical appliances, lightning arrester, fuel supply system, energy efficiency, ventilating system, air conditioning system, mechanical system, safety use of glass, fall and collision prevention.

1.1.10 In some specific cases, several requirements under this Regulation can be replaced as long as technical evaluation is sent to the Ministry of Construction stating additional or replacement solutions and the basis thereof in order to maintain fire safety. This technical evaluation must be reviewed by the Ministry of Construction while construction design dossiers must be approved by competent fire and rescue police authority in accordance with fire prevention and firefighting laws.

1.2 Regulated entities

This Regulation applies to organizations and individuals related to construction investment activities in Vietnamese territory.

1.3 Reference documents

The following reference documents are necessary for the application of this Regulation. If reference documents are amended or replaced, the new versions shall prevail.

QCVN 17:2018/BXD, National technical regulations on the construction and installation of outdoor advertising facilities.

TCVN 3890, Fire protection – Fire protection equipment, firefighting systems for construction

TCVN 5738, Fire protection – Automatic fire alarm system – Technical requirements.

TCVN 7336, Fire protection – Water, foam automatic fire-extinguishing systems – Design and installation requirements.

TCVN 9310-4, Fire protection – Vocabulary – Part 4: Fire extinction equipment.

TCVN 9310-8, Fire protection – Vocabulary – Part 8: Terms specific to fire-fighting, rescue services and handling hazardous materials.

TCVN 9311-1, Fire – resistance test- Elements of building construction – Part 1: General requirements.

TCVN 9311-3, Fire – resistance test – Elements of building construction – Part 3: Commentary on test method and test data application.

TCVN 9311-4, Fire – resistance test – Elements of building construction – Part 4: Specific requirements for load bearing vertical separating elements.

TCVN 9311-5, Fire – resistance test – Elements of building construction – Part 5: Specific requirements for load bearing horizontal separating elements.

TCVN 9311-6, Fire – resistance tests – Elements of building construction- Part 6: Specific requirements for beams.

TCVN 9311-7, Fire – resistance test – Elements of building construction – Part 7: Specific requirements of columns.

TCVN 9311-8, Fire – resistance test- Elements of building construction – Part 8: Specific requirements for non – load bearing vertical separating elements.

TCVN 9383, Fire resistance test – Fire door and Shutter Assemblies.

TCVN 12695, Reaction to fire tests for construction products – Non-combustibility test.

TCVN 13456, Fire protection – Emergency lighting and Exit sign – Design, installation requirements

1.4 Definitions

In this Regulation, the terms below are construed as follows:

1.4.1

fire safety for buildings and constructions (or construction parts)

Refers to fulfillment of requirements for construction material properties and structures, architectural solutions, planning, technical and technology solutions depending ton characteristics of constructions in order to prevent fire (fire protection), limit the spread, extinguish fire (fire prevention), prevent factors harmful for humans, and minimize property damage in case of fire.

1.4.2

fire engine parking space

Refers to a road segment whose finished surface can withstand the calculated load, which is located along the circumference or in a part of the circumference of the buildings, which allows firefighting equipment to deploy firefighting activities.

NOTE: In comparison with fire lane, fire engine parking space is design to withstand a greater load with a greater width for the deployment of firefighting equipment

1.4.3

fire protection

Refers to a combination of methods and technical solutions adopted to prevent impact of fire on human and limit physical damage caused by fire.

1.4.4

fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, fire compartments

Refers to a categorized characteristic of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments determined by fire-resistance rating of structures/structural elements employed to build said buildings, constructions, and fire compartments.

1.4.5

fire protection assembly

Refer to an apparatus employed to prevent fire and combustion products from spreading from a fire compartment or from a room with fire to other rooms. Includes fire-resistance-rated walls, fire-resistance-rated partitions, and fire-resistance-rated floors.

1.4.6

smoke barriers

Refer to structures employed to divert, contained, and/or reduce the spread of smoke (gaseous product for a fire).

1.4.7

fire risk level of structural elements

Refers to a characteristic of structural elements and is based on combustibility test results of materials of structural elements according to applicable standards

1.4.8

fire risk level of structures

Refers to a characteristic of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments and is based on level of participation of their structures in development of the fire and formation of fire hazards.

1.4.9

building height for fire prevention and firefighting (fire height)

Fire height of a building (excluding the topmost mechanical floor) is determined as follows:

The maximum distance from fire lane to the lowest point of the opening (window) on the exterior wall of the highest storey;

Half of total distance from fire lane to the floor and to the ceiling of the topmost storey – if no openings (windows) are located on the exterior wall.

NOTE 1: If roof is utilized, fire height of the building shall equal the greatest distance from fire lane to the highest point of the wall surrounding the roof

NOTE 2: Fire height shall not take into account the roof if it is not regularly occupied by humans (not utilized by humans).

NOTE 3: If balcony (loggia) or enclosing structures (guardrail) are built, fire height shall equal the greatest distance from fire lane to the highest point of the guarding structures (guardrail) or balcony (loggia).

1.4.10

height of solid stream

Equals 0,8 times the height of a stream flowing vertically.

1.4.11

smoke outlet (flap, shutter)

Refer to remotely controlled equipment (devices) which seals openings located on the exterior wall surrounding rooms protected by natural smoke extraction system.

1.4.12

hoistway door

Refers to a door fixed to the elevator shaft which allows passengers to enter and exit from elevator cabins.

1.4.13

smoke inlet

Refers to an opening in smoke extraction system to which mesh, bars, flaps, or normally closed fire dampers can be fitted.

1.4.14

accessible floor area

Refers to the total floor area of all covered spaces within a building, including service ducts, lift shafts, toilets, staircases, areas occupied by fixed, moveable furniture, equipment, facilities, and any open-to-sky habitable areas above or below the first storey of the building.

1.4.15

fire lane

Refers to a road designed to allow firefighting equipment to reach and move within a building’s vicinity to commerce firefighting and rescue activities.

1.4 16

means of egress

Refers to a path of travel which allows humans to head outside or enter safe areas, refuge floors, fire emergency holding areas and guarantees safe evacuation of humans in case of fire.

1.4.17

independent means of egress

Refers to a means of egress that serves only one section of the building (exit accesses of other sections of the building will not lead to this means of egress).

1.4.18

fire-resistance rating

Refers to the period of time (in hours or minutes) from the moment in which structures and structural elements undergo fire resistance test in standard temperature to the moment in which they exhibit any of the limit states.

1.4.19

fire emergency holding area

Refers to an area which is located on the refuge floor and allows temporary evacuation in case of fire.

1.4.20

technical room

Refers to a room where all technical equipment of the building or storey is stored. Technical rooms can occupy a mechanical floor partially or entirely.

1.4.21

room

Refers to a space contained within a building that serves a definite purpose and is limited by structures.

1.4.22

regularly occupied room

Refers to a room occupied by humans for at least 2 consecutive hours or for a total of 6 hours in 24 hours.

1.4.23

single-loaded corridor

Refers to a corridor whose one side receives natural ventilation, is not obstructed, runs continuously along its length and whose clear height from the highest point of the side wall to the ceiling is not smaller than 1,2 m.

1.4.24

fire protection system

A system that includes: smoke protection system, standpipe system, fire hydrant system, automatic fire suppression system, fire alarm, public address system, emergency lighting system, egress lighting system, fire service elevator, rescue equipment, structural solutions, evacuation solutions, smoke prevention solutions, flame spread prevention solutions.

1.4.25

air supply system for smoke control

Refers to a system that is remotely controlled and prevents smoke in case of fire for rooms in control areas, staircases, elevator shafts, fire protection vestibules by supplying fresh air from the outside to create positive pressure in the aforementioned areas, prevents the spread of combustion products and supplies fresh air to make up for the expelled combustion products.

1.4.26

smoke extraction system

Refers to a system that is remotely controlled expels smoke and combustion products outside via smoke inlet.

1.4.27

standpipe system

Refers to a combination of specialized equipment including valves, hoses, and nozzles that have been pre-installed to deliver water to the fire.

1.4.28

fire separation distance

Refers to the minimum distance between buildings and constructions for the purpose of preventing flame spread.

1.4.29

fire compartment

Refers to a section of a building which is separated by fire-resistance-rated walls and/or fire-resistance-rated floors or fire-resistance-rated roofs whose fire-resistance rating is sufficient to prevent the fire from spreading beyond the fire compartment throughout the fire duration.

1.4.30

vestibule

Refers to a space located between doors which prevents smoke and other gases from entering buildings, staircases, or other rooms.

1.4.31

fire protection vestibule

Refers to a vestibule that protects any opening on fire protection assembly, is enclosed by fire-resistance-rated floors and fire-resistance-rated partitions, contains 2 adjacent openings fitted with fire-resistance-rated protectives, or contains more than 2 openings fitted with fire-resistance-rated protectives only when mechanical ventilation is adopted for the vestibule in order to prevent smoke from entering the vestibule in case of fire.

1.4.32

smoke

Refers to smoke and dust created by products of incomplete combustion of liquid and/or solid materials

1.4.33

exit access (exit, exit access doorway)

Refers to a route or a door that leads into a means of egress, directly outside, or into control areas, refuge floors, and/or fire emergency holding areas.

1.4.34

exit passageway

Refers to an exit access that leads to a means of egress without crossing building sections (or rooms) of other occupancies.

1.4.35

separate exit access

Refers to an exit access that leads from a building section (or room or rooms) into an independent means of egress, or directly outside, or directly into control areas, refuge floors, fire emergency holding areas.

1.4.36

protective concrete layer and concrete cover

Protective concrete layer starts from the edge of the structural elements to the nearest rebar surface.

Concrete cover refers to the thickness of the protective concrete layer (from the edge of the structural elements to the nearest rebar surface).

1.4.37

occupied roof

Refers to a roof which is regularly occupied by humans (at least 2 consecutive hours or at least 6 hours within a period of 24 hours).

1.4.38

flame

Refers to the visible, gaseous part of a fire.

1.4.39

building

Refers to a structure whose primary function is to shelter, protect people or objects therein and which is partially or entirely covered and built on a fixed location.

1.4.40

apartment building

Refers to a building with at least 2 storeys, multiple flats, common staircases, private property and common property, common infrastructures and amenities for use by households, individuals, and organizations. Includes apartment buildings built for residential purposes and apartment buildings built for a mix of residential and business purposes (hereinafter referred to as “multipurpose apartment buildings”)

1.4.41

multipurpose building

Refers to a building that serves different purposes (for example: a building can be designed to facilitate office, commerce and services, public operations, and even accommodations)

NOTE: A multipurpose building must comply with regulations on fire safety applicable to multipurpose buildings if floor area dedicated to each occupancy of the building does not exceed 70% of the total floor area of said building (not including floor area used for technical system, fire prevention and firefighting, fire emergency holding areas, and parking).

1.4.42

manufacturing facility

Refers to a building where industrial manufacturing activities are conducted and necessary conditions are guaranteed to allow humans to work and operate technology equipment.

1.4.43

fire risk category by function of buildings, constructions, fire compartments, and rooms

Refers to a characteristic of buildings, constructions, fire compartments, and rooms which is determined by functions and characteristics of said buildings, constructions, fire compartments, and rooms, including characteristics of production technology employed within said buildings, constructions, fire compartments, and rooms.

1.4.44

fire risk classification of construction materials

Refers to a property of construction material determined by combustibility test as per standards.

1.4.45

fire subcompartment

Refers to a part within a fire compartment that is separated by fire protection assembly and/or areas sustaining no fire load

1.4.46

fire prevention

Refers to a combination of organization and technical solutions which aim to ensure safety for humans, prevent fire, restrict flame spread, and facilitate effective extinguishing of the flame

1.4.47

compartment volume

Refers to volume of space in a building or a fire compartment. This volume does not include walls of protected elevators, exit access stairwells and other spaces (e.g. lavatories and storage units) covered by walls with fire resistance ratings less than 60 minutes and walkways passing through walls protected by class 2 fire-resistance-rated doors installed with self-closing devices. Compartment volume shall be calculated based on:

  1. a) Clearance area which equals the distance between inner finished surfaces of surrounding walls, or in case of areas without surrounding walls, from a vertical surface to the topmost outermost edge of the floor;
  2. b) Height which equals the distance from the highest point of the lower floor to the lowest point of the upper floor;
  3. c) In case of a building or a fire compartment that extends to the roof, height shall take into account the distance from the floor surface to the lowest point of the roof or the lowest point of ceiling of the topmost storey in the fire compartment, including spaces occupied by unprotected service ducts, walls, vertical shafts, or other structures within the space in question.

1.4.48

smoke protected lobby

Refers to a lobby leading into an exit access stairwells. This lobby must be designed to as to prevent or minimize smoke infiltration into the staircase.

1.4.49

elevator lobby

Refers to an empty space leading to the elevator

1.4.50

number of storey

Refers to the number of above-ground storeys (including mechanical floor, roof access) and basements/semi-basements but not attics.

NOTE: Roof access does not contribute towards the number of storey of a construction when its sole use is to shelter stairwell/elevator shaft and cover technical equipment of the construction (if any) and when roof access area does not exceed 30% of roof area.

1.4.51

fire incident

Refers to an uncontrolled combustion that leads to human casualty and/or property damage.

1.4.52

combustion

Refers to an exothermic redox chemical reaction which is accompanied by a flame or incandescent light or smoke.

1.4.53

standard documents

Include documents such as standards, technical specifications, code of practice, and technical regulations in Vietnam and in other countries promulgated by competent agencies and authorities.

1.4.54

fire load

Refers to the total heat output produced by combustion of combustible materials within a construction

1.4.55

attic

Refers to a storey located in the space directly beneath the pitched roof where a part or the entire vertical surface of the storey is created by roof pitches or gables while surrounding walls (if any) are not taller than 1,5 m from the floor.

1.4.56

home landing (of an elevator)

Refers to a storey where the main entrance to the building is located (usually the first storey).

1.4.57

basement

Refers to a storey with more than half of its height located below ground level according to approved planning.

NOTE: When reviewing fire safety requirements of a building located on varying ground levels, a storey located below ground level according to approved planning shall not be considered a basement if means of egress from this storey does not travel in an upward direction.

1.4.58

refuge floor

Refers to a storey for temporary evacuation which is located in a building with fire height exceeding 100 m. Each refuge floor may house one or multiple fire emergency holding areas.

1.4.59

semi-basement

Refers to a storey with half of its height located above or at ground level according to approved planning

1.4.60

mechanical floor

Refers to a storey or a part thereof where technical rooms or technical equipment of the building is located. A mechanical floor can be a basement, a semi-basement, a attic, the topmost storey, or any storey in-between.

1.4.61

above-ground storey

Refers to a storey whose floor level is above or at ground level according to approved planning.

1.4.62

fire service elevator

Refers to an elevator which is installed primarily for passenger transport but is additionally equipped with protected control, communication systems and marked in order to allow the elevator to be manually controlled by fire brigade to reach various storeys of the building in case of fire.

1.4.63

smoke ventilation

Refers to controlled ventilation process which takes place in case of fire in any of the rooms and helps prevent harmful impact of combustion products (rising of toxic substances concentration, rising of temperature, or changing of optical density of air) on humans and properties.

1.4.64

fire risk of substances and construction materials

Refers to a state of substances and materials which is characterized by the ability of the substances and materials to combust or explode.

1.4.65

fire risk of fire barriers

Refers to a state of fire barriers and is characterized by the ability to combust and contribute to the fire as well as impact of harmful combustion factors on humans and properties.

1.4.66

fire resistance

Refers to the ability to resist the fire and prevent the spread of fire hazards.

1.4.67

smoke damper

Refers to a normally closed fire damper, which is rated for E and installed directly on openings of smoke inlets in corridors and smoke protected lobbies (subsequently referred to as “corridors”)

1.4.68

fire damper

Refers to an equipment which is remotely controlled, shields ventilation ducts or openings on enclosing structures of a building, and is rated for EI. There are 3 types of fire dampers:

Normally open fire dampers (which close in case of fire);

Normally closed fire dampers (which open in case of fire or after a fire);

Combined fire dampers (which close in case of a fire and open after a fire);

1.4.69

control area

Refers to an area in which humans are protected from fire hazards or an area in which fire hazards are either absent or not exceeding the permitted values.

1.4.70

smoke compartment

Refers to space within a structure which is limited or surrounded by smoke barriers or structural elements which help prevent the spread of smoke in case of fire.

1.4.71

passive fire protection for structures

Refers to the adoption of impregnation or coating, layering of protective layers on top of structures in order to raise fire resistance and/or reduce fire risk of the structures.

1.4.72

fire hazards

Fire hazards which can lead to injury, poisoning, loss of life, and/or property damage.

NOTE: Fire hazards include 1) flame and flaming droplets; 2) heat wave; 3) rising ambient temperature; 4) rising toxic substance concentration of combustion products; 5) low oxygen concentration; 6) smoke obscuration.

1.5 General provisions

1.5.1 When designing buildings, structural and premise – spatial arrangement and construction engineering solutions must be implemented in order to ensure the followings in case of fire:

– The buildings are able to maintain overall stability and stiffness in a definite period of time as prescribed by fire resistance category of buildings;

– All building occupants (regardless of age and health conditions) can evacuate to safe areas outside (hereinafter referred to as “outside”) in a timely manner before the risks to human lives and health are present due to fire hazards;

– All rescue operations are feasible;

– Fire brigade and firefighting equipment are able to access the fire, implement firefighting activities, rescue humans and properties;

– The fire is prevented from spreading onto neighboring buildings, even when the burning buildings collapse;

– All direct and indirect physical damage is minimized, including damage to the buildings and properties therein, taking into account economic relationship between the damage and costs for fire prevention and firefighting solutions, equipment.

1.5.2 During construction process:

– All fire prevention and protection solutions must be adopted according to the design in a manner conforming to applicable regulations and standards and approved by the competent authority;

– Fire prevention and firefighting requirements of construction in progress and auxiliary constructions, fire prevention and firefighting regulations in construction as per fire prevention and firefighting laws must be adequately implemented;

– All firefighting equipment must be equipped and ready for use;

– Safe evacuation, rescue operations, and property protection in case of fire during construction process and at construction sites must be guaranteed.

1.5.3 During use:

– All building sections and operation of fire protection system must conform to design requirements and technical documents thereof;

– Regulations on fire prevention and firefighting as per applicable laws must be implemented;

– Structural solutions, premise – spatial arrangement, and engineering solutions must not be altered without approved design as per the law;

– Structural elements and materials that do not meet requirements under applicable regulations and standards are not allowed for use in repair operations

If a building is approved under restrictions pertaining to fire load or number of occupants of the building or building section, these restrictions must be posted in visible locations while building administration departments must establish separate fire prevention, firefighting, and evacuation solutions in case of fire.

1.5.4 When analyzing fire risk of buildings, calculated scenarios based on correlation between parameters such as contribution to the fire, the spread of fire hazards, human evacuation, and firefighting operations can be utilized.

2 FIRE-RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSIFICATIONS

2.1 Fire risk classification of construction materials

2.1.1 Purpose of classification

2.1.1.1 The classification of construction materials and substances based on fire risks shall be implemented in order to establish fire safety requirements for these materials and substances, and use, preservation, transport, processing, and disposal thereof.

2.1.1.2 In order to establish fire safety requirements for building structures, constructions, and fire protection systems, construction materials shall be classified by fire risks.

2.1.2 Classification criteria

Fire risks of construction materials are determined based on fire-related technical specifications:

– Combustibility;

– Ignitability;

– Flame spread;

– Smoke production;

– Toxic potency.

2.1.3 Combustibility classification

2.1.3.1 By combustibility, construction materials are classified into non-combustible materials and combustible materials.

2.1.3.2 Non-combustible materials are those with combustibility criteria (temperature increase, loss of sample mass, duration of sustained flaming) under B.1.1, Appendix B.

Non-combustible materials are not subject to regulations on fire risks and not subject to determination of other criteria (see B.1.1, Appendix B)

2.1.3.3 Combustible materials shall be classified into 4 classes:

– Ch1 (mildly flammable);

– Ch2 (moderately flammable);

– Ch3 (flammable);

– Ch4 (highly flammable).

Combustibility and construction materials classified by combustibility are determined under B.1.2, Appendix B

2.1.4 Ignitability classification

By ignitability, combustible construction materials are classified into 3 classes:

– BC1 (barely ignitable);

– BC2 (moderately ignitable);

– BC3 (ignitable).

Classification of construction material based on ignitability shall be determined under B.1.3 of Appendix B

2.1.5 Flame spread classification

By flame spread, combustible construction materials are classified into 4 classes

LT1 (no spread);

LT2 (limited spread);

LT3 (moderate spread);

LT4 (rapid spread).

Classification of flame spread applies to flooring and roofing materials, including carpets, according to B.1.4 of Appendix B

Other construction materials are not required to be classified by flame spread.

2.1.6 Smoke production classification

By smoke production, combustible construction materials are classified into 3 classes:

– SK1 (low smoke production);

– SK2 (moderate smoke production);

– SK3 (high smoke production).

Classification of construction materials by smoke production is determined under B.1.5 of Appendix B.

2.1.7 Toxic potency classification

By classification of combustion products, combustible construction materials are classified into 4 classes:

– DT1 (low toxic potency);

– DT2 (moderate toxic potency);

– DT3 (high toxic potency);

– DT4 (very high toxic potency).

Classification of construction materials by toxic potency of combustion products is determined under B.1.6 of Appendix B

2.1.8 Fire risk classification

2.1.8.1 By fire risks, construction materials are classified into CV0, CV1, CV2, CV3, CV4, and CV5 in ascending order fire risk level.

NOTE: Fire risk level of construction materials is determined by a combination of criteria under 2.1.2.

2.1.8.2 Fire risk levels of construction materials are specified under B.1.7, Appendix B.

2.2 Structural elements

2.2.1 Purpose of classification

2.2.1.1 Structural elements are classified by fire resistance and fire risks

2.2.1.2 Structural elements are classified by fire resistance in order to determine their use in buildings, constructions, and fire compartments with a definite fire-resistance rating or to determine fire-resistance rating of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments.

2.2.13 Structural elements are classified by fire risks in order to determine their contribution to the fire and formation of fire hazards.

2.2.2 Structural elements classification by fire resistance

2.2.2.1 Depending on the ability of structural elements of buildings and constructions to resist the fire and the spread of fire hazards in standard testing conditions, their fire resistance shall be classified as follows:

– Not required;

– No less than 15 minutes;

– No less than 30 minutes;

– No less than 45 minutes;

– No less than 60 minutes;

– No less than 90 minutes;

– No less than 120 minutes;

– No less than 150 minutes;

– No less than 180 minutes;

– No less than 240 minutes.

2.2.2.2 Fire-resistance rating of structural elements shall be determined under standard testing conditions. Fire-resistance rating of load bearing and sheltering structural elements under standard testing conditions or calculated results shall be expressed by the amount of time after which one or several limit states subsequently occur:

– Loss of stability (expressed by the letter R);

– Loss of integrity (expressed by the letter E);

– Loss of insulation (expressed by the letter I) as temperature of the non-burning surface reaches the limit value;

Loss of limitation of heat radiation (expressed by the letter W) as heat flux measured from a definite distance from the non-burning surface of the structural elements/structures reaches the limit value;

NOTE 1: Fire-resistance rating of structural elements is determined by using combustibility test under TCVN 9311-1 through TCVN 9311-8 or equivalent standards or by using calculations according to approved fire resistance design standards.

Fire-resistance ratings of smoke and air ducts shall be determined in accordance with ISO 6944 or equivalent standards.

NOTE 2: The required fire-resistance ratings of specific structural elements are specified under this Regulation and Technical regulations of each construction. The required fire-resistance rating of structural elements are expressed by REI, REW, EI, EW, EIW, RE, or R accompanied by the duration of sustaining fire in minutes. For example: If a structural element has required fire-resistance rating of REI 120, the structural element must be able to maintain its stability, integrity, and insulation for 120 minutes while being affected by the fire. If a structural element has required fire-resistance rating of R 60, the structural element must be able to maintain its stability for 60 minutes while being affected by the fire regardless of insulation and integrity.

NOTE 3: A structural element is considered to fulfill fire-resistance rating requirements if any of the following conditions is met:

  1. a) The structural element shares similar design and technical characteristics with a combustibility test sample whose fire-resistance rating as determined by the test is not lower than the required fire-resistance rating of the structural element.
  2. b) Fire-resistance rating of the structural element as determined by calculations according to applicable fire resistance standards is not lower than the required fire-resistance rating of structural element.
  3. c) The structural element has design and technical characteristics matching those of structural elements which are listed under Appendix F together with respective nominal fire-resistance ratings not lower than the required fire-resistance rating of the structural element.

2.2.3 Classification of structural elements by fire risks

2.2.3.1 By fire risks, structural elements are classified into 4 levels:

K0 (no fire risks);

K1 (limited fire risks);

K2 (moderate fire risks),

K3 (fire risks).

2.2.3.2 Criteria for placing a structural element under any specific fire risk level shall be determined by using methods stated under Vietnam’s standards (or equivalent) pertaining to fire safety testing.

NOTE 1: Without testing, structural elements are placed under fire risk levels as follows:

  1. a) K0 – when the structural elements are made solely from non-combustible materials;
  2. b) K1 – when outer surface of the structural elements are made from materials that are classified as Ch1, BC1, and SK1 or higher in terms of safety;
  3. c) K2 – when outer surface of the structural elements are made from materials that are classified as Ch2, BC2, and SK2 or higher in terms of safety;
  4. d) K3 – when outer surface of the structural elements are made from materials that are classified as either Ch3 or BC3 or SK3

NOTE 2: Glass façade of a building is considered a K0 structural element if all its parts (including those connected to the building) are made from non-combustible materials. Sealant network and outer coating that are up to 0,3 mm in thickness (if any) can be ignored for this purpose

2.3 Fire protection assembly

2.3.1 Purpose of classification

Fire protection assembly is classified based on methods for preventing the spread of fire hazards and fire resistance in order to select structures and opening protectives of fire protection assembly with appropriate fire-resistance rating and fire risk levels.

2.3.2 Classification of fire protection assembly

2.3.2.1 Fire protection assembly includes fire-resistance-rated walls, fire-resistance-rated partitions, and fire-resistance-rated floors and are classified in accordance with Schedule 1.

NOTE: In addition to the aforementioned fire protection assembly, other measures such as fire curtains, water curtains, fire separation distance, and areas without fire load are also employed to prevent flame spread.

2.3.2.2 Opening protectives of fire protection assembly (such as fire-resistance-rated doors, hatches, fire dampers, windows, fire curtains) that are dependent on fire-resistance rating of the separation are classified according to Schedule 2.

NOTE: Fire-resistance rating of fire dampers in air distribution systems shall be determined in accordance with ISO 10294 or equivalent standards. Fire-resistance rating of doors, windows, and shutters shall be determined in accordance with TCVN 9383 or equivalent standards.

2.3.2.3 Fire protection vestibules located in openings of fire protection assembly that are dependent on structures of fire protection vestibules shall be classified into type 1 and type 2 fire protection vestibules

2.3.3 Requirements for fire protection assembly

2.3.3.1 Fire protection assembly is employed to prevent fire and combustion products from spreading from a fire compartment or from a room on fire to other rooms.

2.3.3.2 Fire protection assembly is characterized by fire resistance and fire risks.

Fire resistance of a fire protection assembly shall be determined by fire resistance of all its constituents, including:

– Separating structures (partitions, walls, floors, and similar);

– Structural elements that stabilize separating structures (frames, bracing, and similar);

– Structural elements that support separating structures (supporting beams, supporting walls, and similar);

– Joints thereof.

Fire-resistance ratings by loss of stability (R) of structural elements that stabilize separating structures, structural elements that support separating structures, and joints thereof must not be lower than the required fire-resistance ratings of the separating structures.

Fire risks of fire protection assembly shall be determined by fire risks of the separating structures together with those of connecting parts and structural elements that stabilize the separating structures.

2.3.3.3 Fire-resistance ratings and types of structural elements working as fire protection assembly, respective opening protectives, and fire protection vestibules are specified under Schedule 1.

2.3.3.4 Type 1 fire protection assembly must have K0 fire risk level. In specific cases, K1 fire risk level is allowed in type 2 through type 4 fire protection assembly.

2.3.3.5 Fire-resistance ratings of protectives of openings of fire protection assembly are specified under Schedule 2.

Schedule 1 – Fire-resistance ratings and types of structural elements working as fire protection assembly, respective opening protectives, and fire protection vestibules

Fire protection assembly Types of fire protection assembly Fire-resistance ratings of fire protection assembly Types of protectives of openings of fire protection assembly Types of fire protection vestibules
1. Fire-resistance-rated wall 1 REI 150 1 1
2 REI 45 2 2
2. Fire-resistance-rated partition 1 EI 45 2 1
2 El 15 3 2
3. Fire-resistance-rated partitions with glass area exceeding 25% of partition area 1 EIW 45 1) 2 1
2 EIW 15 1) 3 2
4. Fire-resistance-rated floors 1 REI 150 1 1
2 REI 60 2 1
3 REI 45 2 1
4 REl 15 3 2
In regard to materials other than glass, adopt EI parameters; in regard to glass sections, adopt EW parameters. Fire-resistance-rated partitions that have been tested and qualified for EI parameters, including the glass section, shall be considered to be qualified for EW parameters.

Schedule 2 – Fire-resistance ratings of opening protectives of fire protection assembly

Types of opening protectives of fire protection assembly Types of opening protectives of fire protection assembly Fire-resistance rating
1. Doors (except for: doors with glass sections exceeding 25% of door area; smoke-proof doors), hatches, fire dampers 1), fire curtains 1 El 60
2 El 30
3 EI 15
2. Doors with glass sections exceeding 25% of door area 1 EIW 60 2)
2 EIW 30 2)
3 EIW 15 2)
3. Hoistway doors (if required for fire-resistance ratings) 2 E 30
4. Windows 1 E 60
2 E 30
3 E 15
1) Fire-resistance ratings of fire dampers are allowed to be rated for integrity (E) if these dampers are fitted inside channels, ducts, and pipelines which are rated for both integrity and (E) and insulation (I).

2) In regard to materials other than glass, adopt EI parameters; in regard to glass sections, adopt EW parameters. Doors that have been tested and qualified for EI parameters, including the glass sections, shall be considered to be qualified for EW parameters

2.3.3.6 Requirements for parts of fire protection vestibules are specified under Schedule 3.

NOTE: If the inside of fire protection assembly is fitted with doors, hatches, dampers, windows, blinds or fire protection vestibules where these protectives are located, the doors, fire dampers, and fire protection vestibules must also have fire prevention capacity appropriate to the type of fire protection assembly under Schedule 1.

Schedule 3 – Requirements for parts of fire protection vestibules

Types of fire protection vestibules Types of parts of fire protection vestibules
Partitions Floors Opening protectives
1 1 3 2
2 2 4 3

2.4 Staircase and stairwell

2.4.1 Purpose of classification

Staircases and stairwells are classified in order to determine their requirements pertaining to premise – spatial arrangement and structural solutions and to establish requirements for using them as means of egress for humans

2.4.2 Classification of staircase

2.4.2.1 Staircases and stairwells serving as exit accesses for humans from buildings and constructions shall be classified as follows:

Type 1 – indoor staircase, positioned in a stairwell;

Type 2 – indoor staircase, open;

Type 3 – outdoor staircase, open.

NOTE 1: “Open” means the staircase is not enclosed in a stairwell.

NOTE 2: Illustrations pertaining to types of staircases are depicted under Appendix I.

2.4.2.2 Fire escape stairs serving firefighting and rescue purposes shall be classified into 2 types as follows:

– P1 – vertical ladder;

– P2 – stairs with rise to run ratio not exceeding 6:1 (not exceeding 80o)

2.4.3 Classification of stairwell

2.4.3.1 Exit access stairwells shall be classified as follows depending on level of smoke protection:

– Regular stairwell;

– Smokeproof stairwell

NOTE: Illustrations pertaining to types of stairwells are depicted under Appendix I.

2.4.3.2 Regular stairwells shall be further classified as follows:

– L1 – stairwell that receives natural lighting via openings (either blank or fitted with glass) on the exterior walls of each storey or does not receive natural lighting in case it is intended for exit from semi-basements;

– L2 – stairwell that receives natural lighting via openings (either blank or fitted with glass) on the roof.

2.4.3.3 Smokeproof stairwells shall be further classified depending on smoke protection measures as follows:

– N1 – stairwell whose entry on each storey travels through a buffer area along open passages (see part 3 for cases of N1 stairwells);

NOTE: N1 stairwell can be substituted by a stairwell whose entry on each storey travels through a vestibule. Both vestibules and stairwells must contain positive pressure in case of fire. The supply of air into vestibules and stairwells must be independent of each other.

– N2 – stairwell that contains positive pressure (pressure in the stairwell is greater than that outside of the stairwell) in case of fire;

– N3 – stairwell whose entry on each storey travels through a fire protection vestibule which always has positive pressure (pressure in the fire protection vestibule is greater than that outside of the fire protection vestibule).

2.5 Buildings, constructions, and fire compartments

2.5.1 Purpose of classification

The fire-related technical classification for buildings, constructions, and fire compartments serve to establish fire safety requirements for fire prevention and fire protection systems of buildings and constructions depending on their occupancies (purposes) and fire risks.

2.5.2 Classification criteria

The fire-related technical classification for buildings, constructions, and fire compartments shall take into account the following criteria:

– Fire resistance category;

– Fire risk level of structures;

– Fire risk categories by function.

2.5.3 Fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments

2.5.3.1 Buildings, constructions, and fire compartments shall be classified into 5 fire resistance categories of I, II, III, IV, and V.

2.5.3.2 Establish fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments

Fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments is established on the basis of number of storey (or fire height), fire risk category by functions, area of fire compartment (see Appendix H) and fire risk of technology procedures that take place in the buildings, constructions, and fire compartments.

2.5.3.3 The required fire-resistance rating of structures must be selected to remain appropriate to fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments. Unless otherwise stated hereunder, the correspondence between fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, fire compartments and fire-resistance ratings of their structures shall conform to Schedule 4.

Schedule 4 – Correspondence between fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, fire compartments and fire-resistance ratings of their structural elements

Fire resistance category of buildings, constructions, fire compartments Fire-resistance ratings of structural elements, no less than
Load bearing walls, load bearing pillars, and other load bearing components Non-load bearing exterior walls Floors (including attics and storeys above the basements) Roof structures without attics Structural elements of stairwell
Roof tiles (including tiles with insulation) Truss, beams, purlins Inner wall Stringer and landings
I R 120 E 30 REI 60 RE 30 R 30 REI 120 R 60
II R 90 E 15 REI 45 RE 15 R 15 REI 90 R 60
II R 45 E 15 REI 45 RE 15 R 15 REI 60 R 45
IV R 15 E 15 REI 15 RE 15 R 15 REI 45 R 15
V No regulations
NOTE 1: In buildings with fire resistance categories I, II, and III, the floor and ceiling of basements, semi-basements must be made from non-combustible materials and be rated for REI 90 at the minimum. The floor of the first storey and the topmost storey must be made from materials not lower than Ch1 in terms of combustibility. In buildings with fire resistance categories of IV and V, the floor and ceiling of basements, semi-basements must be made from materials not lower than Ch1 in terms of combustibility and be rated for REI 45 at the minimum.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings of roof tiles (including thermal insulation tiles) and purlins thereof (other than buildings, fire compartments, and rooms placed under F3.1 or F3.2 fire risk categories by functions, F5 fire risk category warehouses, manufacturing facilities, and other buildings, rooms, fire compartments of class A, B, or C) are not required if all of the following conditions are met:

The underside of the purlins are at least 6,1 m away from the floor directly below them;

Roof tiles and purlins are made from either non-combustible materials or mildly flammable materials (Ch1).

NOTE 3: In regard to buildings (F1.3 buildings and multipurpose buildings) with 2 or 3 basements, load bearing structures and structural elements in the basements must be rated for at least R 120.

NOTE 4: Floor of rooms where combustible liquid is produced or preserved must be made from non-combustible materials.

NOTE 5: A part of the non-load bearing exterior wall is not required to be subject to fire protection measures. The area that is not required to be subject to fire protection measures shall be determined in accordance with E.3, Appendix E.

NOTE 6: Fire-resistance ratings of non-load bearing exterior wall are not required when all of the following conditions are met:

– The entire building is equipped with automatic sprinkler system in accordance with the TCVN 7336;

– The minimum fire separation distance of exterior wall segments where fire protection measures are not required according to E.3, Appendix E is sufficiently guaranteed;

– Non-load bearing exterior wall of the building has K0 fire risk level. Finishing materials of exterior wall (if any) are non-combustible materials or mildly flammable (Ch1) with no spread capacity (LT1) or higher.

Load bearing walls, load bearing pillars, frames, solid partitions, floor components between storeys and roof without attics (such as beams, rafters, purlins, floor tiles, roof tiles) shall be considered load bearing components of buildings if they can maintain general structure and spatial stability of buildings in case of fire.

Information on the aforementioned load bearing components of the buildings must be specified in the building’s technical dossiers by designing entities.

Fire-resistance ratings and fire risk levels are not required for roof structures and structural elements that contain attics in buildings with all fire resistance categories. Fire-resistance ratings of gable structures of attics are not required as long as fire risk level of the gables must be equivalent to that of surrounding walls. Structural elements and structures of roofs which contain attics must be instructed by the designing entities in the building’s technical dossiers.

Fire-resistance ratings are not required for opening protectives (doors, windows, hatches), skylights, light-transmitting windows on the roof, and translucent roofing sheets except for protectives of openings on fire protection assembly and otherwise mentioned cases.

If the minimum required fire-resistance ratings of structural elements are R 15 (RE 15, REI 15), unprotected steel structures are allowed for use if their fire-resistance rating is at least R 8 according to tests or calculations, or if section factor Am/V is less than or equal to 250 m-1.

NOTE: Section factor Am/V shall be determined in accordance with the ISO 834-10 or equivalent standards

In N1 smokeproof stairwells, stringers and landings rated for R 15 with fire risk level K0 are allowed for use.

Fire compartments shall be separated by type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls and/or type 1 fire-resistance-rated floors. A vertical fire compartment can be divided by a mechanical floor which is separated from adjacent storeys by type 2 fire-resistance-rated floors if vertical continuity of type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls is not disrupted. Fire compartments in buildings with fire resistance categories IV and V can be separated by type 2 fire-resistance-rated walls.

2.5.4 Fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments

2.5.4.1 Buildings, constructions, and fire compartments shall be classified into 4 fire risk levels of structures of S0, S1, S2, and S3 depending on fire risks of structural elements.

2.5.4.2 Establish fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments

Fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments shall be determined by number of storeys, fire risk categories by functions, fire compartment, and fire risks of technology procedures that are adopted in the buildings, constructions, and fire compartments.

2.5.4.3 Correspondence between fire risks levels of structures of buildings and fire risk levels of structural elements

Fire risk levels of structural elements must correspond to fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments. The correspondence between fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, fire compartments and the chosen fire risk levels of their structural elements are specified under Schedule 5.

2.5.4.4 Fire risk levels are not required for opening protectives located on enclosing structures of buildings (doors, windows, hatches), skylights, and light-transmitting windows on the roof, except for opening protectives in fire protection assembly.

NOTE: If fire-resistance ratings or fire risk levels of structures cannot be determined via standard fire resistance test or calculations when building members or member structures, fire resistance tests must be carried out for parts of the structures in accordance with applied standard documents.

Schedule 5 – Correspondence between fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, fire compartments and fire risk levels of structural elements

Fire risk levels of structures of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments Fire risk levels of structural elements
Load bearing elements (pillars, columns, beams, and similar) Exterior walls Walls, partitions, floors separating storeys, and roofs without attics Walls of stairwells; fire protection assembly Stringers and landings in stairwells
S0 K0 K0 K0 K0 K0
S1 K1 K2 K1 K0 K0
S2 K3 K3 K2 K1 K1
S3 No regulations K1 K3

2.5.5 Fire risk categories by functions of buildings, constructions, fire compartments, and rooms

2.5.5.1 Buildings and parts thereof (fire compartments, rooms or series of rooms with related occupancies) shall be divided into fire risk categories by functions depending on their use, level of threat to occupant’s safety in case of fire while taking into account age, physical conditions, the possibility of sleeping occupants, people using the primary occupancies of the buildings and number thereof. Fire risk categories by functions are specified under Schedule 6.

2.6.5.2 Manufacturing rooms and storage rooms, including laboratories and factories larger than 50 m2, food preparation rooms with cooking equipment whose capacity exceeds 10 kW in F1, F2, F3, and F4 buildings shall be placed under F5 category.

2.5.5.3 If a building which is placed under a specific fire risk category by functions is allowed to contain rooms or series of rooms which are placed under other fire risk categories by functions, additional conditions according to design standards of specific building forms and technical equipment must be strictly complied with in addition to this Regulation.

Schedule 6 – Building classification1) based on fire risk category by functions

Category Purpose Use properties
F1 Buildings for permanent or temporary accommodation (including 24-hour stay) Rooms in these buildings are used regardless of time of day. Occupants may vary in age and physical conditions. These buildings are characterized by the presence of sleeping units.
F1.1 Kindergartens, preschools; hospitals (excluding makeshift hospitals), in-patient wards of infectious disease prevention facilities, primary care clinics, specialized clinics, maternity wards; buildings for use by the elderly and people with disabilities (other than flats), nursing homes; dorms of boarding schools and children facilities; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F1.2 Hotels, hostels, models, rented houses; dorms, tenements, sleeping units of nursing, recovery, intensive care, orthopaedic facilities, and other accommodation facilities with similar occupancies.
F1.3 Apartment buildings and buildings with similar occupancies
F1.4 Detached houses, and buildings with similar occupancies.
F2 Buildings of sports and cultural establishments Primary rooms of these buildings are characterized by the large number of occupants in a definite amount of time.
F2 1 Theaters, cinemas, circuses, concert halls; clubs, nightclubs, discotheques, bars, singing rooms, karaoke venues, and other similar establishments in enclosed spaces, sports constructions with bleachers, stadiums, indoor stadiums; libraries; convention centers, event centers not including food and drink services, and other buildings with similar occupancies and calculated number of seats for occupants in enclosed spaces.
F2.2 Museums, exhibits; dance studios; building blocks of recreational structures, aquariums, and buildings with similar occupancies.
F2.3 Buildings of establishments mentioned under F2.1 but in the outdoors, recreational parks; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F2.4 Buildings of establishments mentioned under F2.2 but in the outdoors.
F3 Buildings of commercial, trade, and residential service establishments Rooms of these buildings are characterized by the fact that the guests outnumber the servers.
F3.1 Buildings of good retailers, goods exhibits, fairs, shopping malls, electronic shopping malls, supermarkets, department stores, convenient stores; bookstores; motorcycle, motor vehicle retailers; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F3.2 Restaurants, food and drink establishments, rest stops; convention centers and event centers that include food and drink services; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F3.3 Railway stations, airports, cable car terminals, ferry terminals, coach stations; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F3.4  (out-patient) medical examination and treatment establishments for general medicine, specialized medicine, and intensive care; out-patient wards of other medical establishments such as medical stations, orthopaedic establishments, beauty centers, intensive care centers; buildings of massage services; and buildings with similar occupancies
F3.5 Rooms intended for guests of enterprises, lifestyle service establishments and public establishments with uncalculated seating capacity (post offices, posts, saving funds, ticket booths, legal counseling offices, notary offices; ironing service providers, tailors, footwear and clothing repair service providers, barbers), funeral parlours, and similar establishments.
F3.6 Sports compounds and training grounds, competition grounds without bleachers; service rooms; stadiums, race tracks, shooting ranges; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F4 Education and training establishments, head offices, science, research, and design organizations, presiding authorities Rooms in these buildings are occupied in certain time of day by a definite group of people who are accustomed to the location and have determined age and physical conditions.
F4.1 Primary schools, lower secondary schools, multi-level schools (not including preschools and kindergartens), upper secondary schools, professional secondary schools, vocational education and training establishments, training schools for teenagers operating in religion sector, and buildings with similar occupancies.
F4.2 Universities, colleges, academies, intermediate professional education, professional training schools, engineering education establishments; training schools for people operating in religion sector other those under F4.1; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F4.3 Head offices of presiding authorities and state authorities of all levels, work places of office employees of enterprises; head offices of political organizations, socio-political organizations; head offices of socio-occupational organizations, public service providers, enterprises, and other organizations, individuals; head offices of religions; designing organizations, scientific research organizations, seismic research stations, meteorology and hydrology stations, space research facilities; communication organizations and publishing houses; radio broadcasting organizations, television broadcasting organizations, telecommunication organizations, communication device installation service providers, banks, agencies, offices; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F4.4 Fire and rescue stations.
F5 Buildings, constructions, and rooms for manufacturing, production, and storage Rooms in these buildings are characterized by constant presence of employees, including those working regardless of time of day.
F5.1 Manufacturing facilities, manufacturing and experimenting rooms, factories, repair and maintenance shops for motor vehicles, motorcycles; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F5.2 Buildings and constructions used as storage, parking garages without technical and repair services; book storage, archives, storage centers, specialized data centers, storage rooms, cargo hold of dry ports; storage of combustible goods and materials or non-combustible goods and materials contained in combustible packaging; and buildings with similar occupancies.
F5.3 Buildings serving agriculture and rural development purposes.
1) This Schedule applies to buildings, constructions, fire compartments, rooms or series of rooms whose occupancies are related to one another.

2.5.6 Classification of buildings, constructions, and rooms with manufacturing and storage occupancies by fire and explosion risks

2.5.6.1 Purpose of classification

The classification of buildings, constructions, and rooms with manufacturing and storage occupancies is implemented in order to establish fire safety requirements, prevent the risk of fire, and ensure fire protection for humans and properties in case of fire in the buildings, constructions, and rooms.

2.5.6.2 Classification of rooms

2.5.6.2.1 By fire and explosion risks, rooms with manufacturing and storage occupancies shall be classified as follows:

– High fire and explosion risk (A);

– Fire and explosion risk (B);

– Fire risk (C1, C2, C3, and C4)

– Moderate fire risk (D);

– Low fire risk (E).

Rooms with manufacturing and storage occupancies shall be elaborated under Appendix C.

2.5.6.2.2 Buildings, constructions, and rooms with other occupancies shall not be classified by fire and explosion risks.

2.5.6.2.3 Fire and explosion risk classes of rooms shall be determined on the basis of combustible substances and materials present in the rooms, quantity and fire risk thereof, premise – spatial solutions of the rooms, and characteristics of technology procedures that take place in the rooms.

2.5.6.2.4 The classification of rooms by fire and explosion risks shall be carried out by inspecting rooms for indicators of the classes from (A) to (E) under Schedule C.1 of Appendix C.

2.5.6.3 Classification of buildings and constructions

2.5.6.3.1 By fire and explosion risks, buildings and constructions shall be classified into classes of A, B, C, D, and E.

2.5.6.3.2 Fire and explosion risk classes of buildings and constructions shall be determined on the basis of percentage and total area of rooms of certain fire and explosion risk classes in the buildings and constructions.

2.5.6.3.3 The classification of buildings and constructions is specified under Appendix C.

3 HUMAN SAFETY ASSURANCE

3.1 General provisions

3.1.1 The requirements in this section aim to ensure:

– Timely and unobstructed evacuation of humans;

– Rescue of people affected by fire hazards;

– Protection for people escaping via means of egress from fire hazards.

3.1.2 Evacuation means the organized and voluntary movement of people from rooms and areas where they are vulnerable to fire hazards to the outside. Evacuation can also mean involuntary movement of people with mobility impairment and is usually done by their caregivers. Evacuation is done along means of egress via exit accesses.

3.1.3 Rescue refers to the compulsory relocation of people to the outside when they are vulnerable to fire hazards or when the risks of fire hazards are present. Rescue is done with the help of the fire brigade or professionally trained employees, includes the use of rescue equipment, and is made via exit accesses and fire exits.

3.1.4 Human protection along means of egress must be ensured by a combination of premise – spatial solutions, convenience, structural, and organization solutions.

All means of egress accessible from a room must ensure safe evacuation through exit accesses from that room without taking into account smoke protection and fire extinguishing equipment present in this room.

Protection for means of egress beyond the room must be calculated in order to ensure safety for humans and must take into account fire risk categories by functions of other rooms located on the exit accesses, number of evacuating people, fire resistance categories and fire risk levels of structures of buildings, number of exit accesses on a storey and in the entire building.

Fire risks of construction materials on the surface of the structures (finishing layers and tiles) in rooms and along means of egress must be limited depending on fire risk categories by functions of the buildings and rooms and other protective measures for exit accesses.

3.1.5 When designing exit accesses from rooms and buildings, all rescue measures and equipment and exits that are not qualified for exit access requirements under 3.2.1 must not be taken into account.

3.1.6 F5 rooms of class A or class B must not be positioned below rooms with occupant load of more than 50 people and must not be positioned in basements or semi-basements.

F1.1, F1.2, and F1.3 must not be positioned in basements or semi-basements.

3.1.7 In regard to buildings with 2 to 3 basements, smoking rooms, supermarkets, shopping malls, food and beverage vendors, and other public spaces can be positioned lower than the first basement only when additional fire safety measures according to applied standard documents are adopted and approved by competent authorities in accordance with 1.1.10.

In regard to hospitals and high schools, rooms serving primary occupancies must be positioned in the semi-basement or the first basement (if there is no semi-basement) or higher. The first basement means the highest basement or the basement that is adjacent to the semi-basement.

All basement floors must facilitate at least 1 entry to exit access stairwells which travels through smoke protected lobbies which are separated from surrounding spaces by type 2 fire-resistance-rated. All doors must be fitted with self-closing devices.

3.1.8 In order to ensure safe evacuation, early fire detection and alarm are required.

3.1.9 In order to protect people evacuating, smoke protection must be implemented to prevent smoke from infiltrating means of egress of buildings and building sections.

Basic requirements for smoke protection systems of buildings are specified under Appendix D.

3.1.10 All equipment of fire protection system in buildings must be prioritized for electricity supply from 2 independent sources (a grid-connected source and a backup generator).

NOTE: Electrical appliances that have separate backup power sources (such as diesel backup pumps, safety cabinets with backup batteries) only requires the grid-connected source as long as the backup power source can function normally in case of fire.

3.1.11 The effectiveness of human safety assurance measures in case of fire can be evaluated via calculation.

3.2 Exit accesses and fire exits

3.2.1 Exits are considered exit accesses if:

  1. a) They lead from rooms on the first storey to the outside:

– Directly; or

– Via corridors; or

– Via lobbies (or waiting areas); or

– Via staircases; or

– Via corridors and lobbies (or waiting areas); or

– Via corridors and staircases.

  1. b) They lead from rooms on any storey other than the first storey to:

– Stairwell or type 3 staircases directly; or

– Corridors that lead directly to stairwells or type 3 staircases; or

– Common rooms (or waiting areas) with exits that lead directly to stairwells or type 3 staircases; or

– Single-loaded corridors of buildings with less than 28 m of fire height that lead directly to type 2 staircases; or

– Occupied roof or separate section of the roof which leads to type 3 staircases.

  1. c) They lead to adjacent rooms (other than F5 rooms of class A or class B) located on the same storey with exits as depicted under 3.2.1 a) and b). Exits leading to rooms of class A or class B can be considered exit accesses if they lead from mechanical rooms that are not regularly occupied but used solely to support the aforementioned rooms of class A and class B.
  2. d) They lead to exits meeting requirements under 3.2.2 and other exit accesses mentioned in this document.

NOTE: If type 3 staircases are used for exit access, calculations pertaining to evacuation must be done accordance with Appendix G.

3.2.2 Exits from basements and semi-basements are considered exit accesses if they lead directly outside and are separated from common stairwells of the buildings (see Figure I.1 of Appendix I).

The following exits are also considered exit accesses:

  1. a) Exits from basements that go outside through common stairwells via separate walkways and are separated from the remaining section of the stairwells by type 1 solid fire-resistance-rated partitions (see Figure I.2 of Appendix I);
  2. b) Exits from basements and semi-basements where rooms of class C1 to class C4, class D, and class E are located which lead into rooms of class C1 to class C4, class D, and class E and into lobbies on the first storey of F5 buildings;
  3. c) Exits from waiting areas, locker rooms, smoking rooms, and toilets in basements or semi-basements of F2, F3, and F4 buildings that lead into lobbies on the first storey via separate type 2 staircases. If this is the case, the following requirements must be met:

– Lobbies must be separated from corridors and adjacent rooms by fire-resistance-rated partitions of at least type 1;

– Rooms on the first storey and storeys above must have means of egress that do not travel through these lobbies (except for rooms in the lobbies);

– Finishing materials of waiting areas, locker rooms, smoking rooms, and toilets in basements or semi-basements must fulfill requirements applicable to common rooms according to Appendix B;

Locker rooms must have enough exit accesses according to this Regulation excluding the exit accesses along type 2 staircases mentioned above.

  1. d) Hinged doors for railway and road transport vehicles.

Vestibules can be positioned on exit discharges from buildings, basements, and semi-basements.

3.2.3 Exits are not considered exit accesses if sliding doors, folding doors, roller shutters, or revolving doors are installed along the way.

Hinged outswinging leaves fitted in the aforementioned doors can be considered exit accesses if their design meets regulations.

3.2.4 Quantity and width of exit accesses from rooms, storeys, and buildings shall be determined by the largest number of people possibly evacuating through them and the maximum permissible distance from the furthest occupied areas (for domestic or work purposes) to the nearest exit accesses.

NOTE 1: The largest number of people evacuating from different spaces of buildings or building sections shall conform to G.3 of Appendix G

NOTE 2: In addition to general requirements stated hereunder, specific requirements pertaining to quantity and width of exit accesses are also stated under standard documents applicable to specific types of buildings. Appendix G prescribes specific regulations for common building types.

Building sections with different occupancies and separated by fire protection assembly must have separate exit accesses, except specific cases specified in this document.

Building sections with different occupancies and separated into fire compartments by fire protection assembly must have separate exit accesses from each storey. Up to 50% of total number of exit accesses can lead to adjacent fire compartments (except for exit accesses that lead to F5 fire compartments). F5 building sections must have separate exit accesses.

3.2.5 The following rooms must have at least 2 exit accesses:

  1. a) F1.1 rooms with occupant load of more than 15 people;
  2. b) Rooms in basements and semi-basements with occupant load of more than 15 people; the case where rooms in basements and semi-basements have occupant load ranging from 6 to 15 people, one of the 2 exit accesses can be a fire exit according requirements of 3.2.13 d);
  3. c) Rooms with occupant load of at least 50 people;
  4. d) Rooms (other than F5 rooms) with occupant load of less than 50 people (including bleachers and opera boxes) where the maximum distance from occupied areas to exit accesses exceeds 25 m. If exit accesses leading to the rooms in question are connected from adjacent rooms with occupant load of more than 5 people, the maximum distance mentioned above must include the travel length for people from the adjacent rooms as well.
  5. e) Rooms and adjacent spaces whose exits only lead to the rooms in question with occupant load of at least 50 people;
  6. f) F5 rooms of class A or class B with more than 5 people working in a shift at its peak, or class C with more than 25 people working in a shift at its peak or when the rooms are larger than 1 000 m2;
  7. g) Open working platforms and platforms for people operating and maintaining equipment in F5 rooms larger than 100 m2 in case of rooms of class A or class B – or larger than 400 m2 in case of rooms of other classes.

If the rooms are required to have at least 2 exit accesses, 50% of the number of exit accesses can lead to an adjacent room as long as the adjacent room must also contain exit accesses compliant to this Regulation and standard documents applicable to that room.

3.2.6 Number of exit accesses of storeys

3.2.6.1 The following storeys must have at least 2 exit accesses:

  1. a) Storeys of F1.1, F1.2, F2.1, F2.2, F3, and F4 buildings;
  2. b) Storeys with occupant load of at least 50 people;
  3. c) Storeys of F1.3 buildings when total flat area per storey exceeds 500 m2 (in case of single-stair buildings, calculate the area on a storey of the single-stair building). If total flat area on a storey does not exceed 500 m2 and there is only one exit access from that storey, each flat located at a height above 15 m must accommodate a fire exit in accordance with 3.2.13 in addition to the exit accesses;
  4. d) Storeys of F5 buildings, either class A or class B when there are more than 5 people working in a shift or class C when there are more than 25 people working in a shift;
  5. e) Basements and semi-basements larger than 300 m2 or with occupant load of more than 15 people.

3.2.6.2 A single exit access is allowed in the following cases (except for buildings with fire resistance category V):

  1. a) From each storey (or from a part of a storey that is separated from other sections of the storey by fire protection assembly) with fire risk categories F1.2, F1.4, F2 (other than nightclubs, discotheques, bars, singing rooms, karaoke venues; and similar service establishments), F3, F4.2, F4.3, and F4.4 when all conditions below are met:

– In regard to buildings with fire height not exceeding 15 m, area of the storey in question must not exceed 300 m2. In regard to buildings with fire height from exceeding 15 m to 21 m, area of the storey in question must not exceed 200 m2.

– The entire buildings are protected by automatic sprinkler system;

– Each storey with occupant load not exceeding 20 people;

– In regard to buildings with more than 3 storey or with fire height exceeding 9 m: equipped with type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors on exit accesses of each storey that lead into exit access stairwells.

– In regard to buildings with 3 storeys or less or with fire height not exceeding 9 m: type 2 stairwells can substitute the aforementioned stairwells as long as building occupants can exit via open balconies or open rooftop in case of fire (except for mansions, villas, accommodations which are prescribed as below).

NOTE: Open balcony or open rooftop means the balcony or rooftop is not enclosed and sheltering apparatus (if any) must facilitate evacuation and rescue for the fire brigade.

In regard to mansions, villas, and accommodations not taller than 3 storeys and of category F1.2, stairwells mentioned above can be substituted by type 2 stairwells when all conditions below are met:

– Each storey must not be larger than 200 m2, fire height must not exceed 9 m, and total number of occupants must not exceed 15 people;

– Buildings have at least one exit access that leads directly outside or into type 3 staircases;

– Occupants can exit outside via type 2 stairwells by ascending or descending no more 1 storey. If occupants are required to descend 2 storeys in order to exit outside, each sleeping unit must have a window located no higher than 1 m from floor level and an exit that leads directly into corridors or common rooms where doors leading to balconies are located. Windows and balconies mentioned above must not be more than 7 m above the ground. If these windows and balconies are more than 7 m to 9 m above the ground, each window and balcony must be fitted with emergency escape equipment which facilitates human evacuation at height (for example: metal ladder, rope ladder);

  1. b) From mechanical floors or storage of mechanical equipment which are not larger than 300 m2. If a storey contains a mechanical area as mentioned above, every 2 000 m2 remaining must have at least 1 more exit access (if the remaining area is less than 2 000 m2, at least 1 emergency area is required). If mechanical floor or mechanical areas are located in the basements, their exits must be separate from other exits and lead directly outside. If mechanical floors or mechanical areas are located on above-ground storeys, exits can go through common stairwells or N1 stairwells if the buildings contain N1 stairwells;
  2. c) From storeys of F1.3 buildings where total flat area (or total floor area in single-stair buildings) ranges from exceeding 500 m2 to 550 m2 and:

– When elevation of the topmost storey does not exceed 28 m – exit accesses from that storey can lead into common stairwells as long as addressable fire alarm is equipped;

– When elevation of the topmost storey exceeds 28 m – exit accesses from that storey can lead to N1 smokeproof stairwells as long as all rooms in flats (other than lavatories, bathrooms, and auxiliary sections) must be equipped with addressable fire alarm or automatic fire extinguishing system.

In regard to F1.3 buildings with fire height ranging from exceed 28 m to 50 m and total flat area on each storey reaches 500 m2, N1 stairwells can be substituted with type 2 stairwells, when the conditions below are met: 1) Entrances from all storeys that lead into stairwells, including openings between stairwells and lobbies must be fitted with fire protection vestibules which is maintained at positive pressure in case of fire; 2) at least one elevator of the building is reserved for use by the fire brigade; 3) All rooms in the flats (other than lavatories, bathrooms, auxiliary sections) must be equipped with addressable fire alarm or automatic fire extinguishing system; 4)The buildings are equipped with fire siren (can be installed in common corridors).

NOTE: Flat area includes balcony and/or loggia area.

  1. d) From storeys (or sections of storeys separated from other sections of the storeys by fire protection assembly) of category F4.1 when all conditions below are met:

– The buildings’ fire height does not exceed 9 m and area of the storeys in question does not exceed 300 m2;

– The storeys in question have single-loaded corridors that lead into type 2 open staircases or stairwells and are led to from F4.1 rooms.

3.2.7 Number of exit accesses from a storey must not be less than 2 if this storey contains a room that requires at least 2 exit accesses.

Number of exit accesses from a building must not be lower than the number of exit accesses of any storey in the same building.

3.2.8 If at least 2 exit accesses are required, they must be distributed away from one another and the calculation of evacuation potential of these exit accesses must assume that the fire has denied access to one of the other exit accesses. The remaining exit accesses must be able to ensure safe evacuation for all occupants in the rooms, on the storeys, or in the buildings (see Figure I.3).

When a room, a building section, or a storey requires at least 2 exit accesses, at least 2 of these exits must be distributed away from one another. The distance between any 2 exit accesses must be equal to or greater than half of the greatest diagonal of the room, building section, or storey. This distance shall be measured by a straight line connecting their closest sides (see Figures I.4 a), b), and c)).

If the entire building is protected by automatic sprinkler system, this distance can be reduced down to 1/3 of the greatest diagonal of the rooms above (see Figure I.4 d)).

If 2 exit stairwells are connected via a corridor, the distance between 2 exit accesses (doors leading to the exit stairwell) shall be measured along the corridor (see Figure I.5). This corridor must be protected in accordance with 3.3.5.

3.2.9 Clearance height of exit access must not be lower than 1,9 m while clear width must not be lower than:

– 1,2 m – from F1.1 rooms if the number of evacuation people exceeds 15, rooms and buildings of other fire risk categories by occupancies if the number of evacuating people exceeds 50, other than F1.3 category;

– 0,8 m – in all other cases.

Width of doors leading outside from stairwells and doors leading into lobbies from stairwells must not be lower than calculated value or stringer width specified under 3.4.1.

In all cases, when determining width of an exit access, the geometry of the means of egress must be taken into account so as to not obstruct stretchers carrying patients.

If double doors are used on exit accesses, width of exit accesses shall equal width of the open leaf and shall not include width of the closed leaf or fixed leaf. Double doors must be fitted with self-closing devices so that each leaf closes in sequence.

In buildings with fire height more than 28 m (other than F1.3 and F1.4 buildings), exit access doorways from common corridors of each storey, common lobbies, waiting areas, foyers, stairwells (other than exit access doorways leading directly outside) must be fire-resistance-rated doors with fire-resistance ratings of EI 30 or higher.

3.2.10 Doors of exit accesses and other doors on means of egress must be outswinging doors.

The direction in which the doors swing is not required in case of:

– F1.3 and F1.4 rooms;

– Rooms with occupant load not exceeding 15 people, other than rooms of class A or class B;

– Warehouse no larger than 200 m2 and not regularly occupied by employees;

– Restrooms;

– Entrances leading to landings of type 3 staircases.

3.2.11 Doors of exit accesses from corridors, common spaces, waiting areas, lobbies, and stairwells must be opened from the inside without keys. In buildings with fire height exceeding 15 m, the doors mentioned above, other than doors of flats, must be solid doors or fitted with tempered glass.

Doors of exit accesses from areas (either rooms or corridors) that are protected by mechanical smoke protection system must be solid doors fitted with self-closing devices and their clearance must be tightly sealed. If these doors need to be left open during use, they must be fitted with self-closing devices that close the doors automatically in case of fire.

Doors on stairwells must be fitted with self-closing devices and have their clearance tightly sealed. Doors of stairwells that open directly outside are not required to be fitted with self-closing devices or have their clearance tightly sealed. Except for specific cases, doors of stairwells in buildings with fire resistance category I or II must be type 1 fire-resistance-rated doors; doors of stairwells in buildings with fire resistance category III or IV must be type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors; doors of stairwells in buildings with fire resistance category V must be type 3 fire-resistance-rated doors.

Other than specific regulations, doors of exit accesses leading from corridors to stairwells used by at least 4 storeys (except for buildings for incarceration or correctional purposes) must ensure the followings:

  1. a) All electronic locks installed on doors must automatically open on activation of the building’s automatic fire alarm system. As soon as electricity is cut, these electronic locks must open;
  2. b) Occupants using stairwells can always come back inside via the doors they just go through or where reentry to the buildings is permitted;
  3. c) Reentry points must be designed following the principle where doors are only allowed to deny reentry if all conditions below are met:

– There are at least 2 storeys where occupants can exit the stairwells to reach other exit accesses (i.e. reentry must be allowed on at least 2 storeys);

– There are no more than 4 storeys between storeys where occupants can exit the stairwells to reach other exit accesses;

– Reentry must be allowed on the topmost storey or the storey immediately below the topmost storey which is served by exit access stairwells if this storey allows access to another exit access;

– Doors that allow reentry must be marked on the stair side by signage that reads “CỬA CÓ THỂ DI VÀO TRONG NHÀ” (REENTRY ON THIS FLOOR) with minimum letter height of 50 mm and is placed at a height between 1,2 m and 1,8 m;

– Doors that do not allow reentry must be marked on the stair side by signage which directs occupants to the nearest points of reentry or the nearest exit accesses in both directions.

NOTE: Doors that do not allow reentry must be marked on the corridor side (the other side of the stair side) by signage that warns occupants that they cannot return through those doors.

3.2.12 Exits that do not qualify as exit accesses can be considered fire exits in order to increase safety for humans in case of fire. All fire exits, including those under 3.2.13, must not be included when calculating fire evacuation.

3.2.13 In addition to cases mentioned under 3.2.12, fire exits also include:

  1. a) Exit to balcony or loggia where a solid wall with minimum clear width of 1,2 m from the edge of the balcony (or loggia) to the window (or door fitted with glass) or 1,6 m between glass doors that open to the balcony (or loggia) is located. Balconies or loggias must have minimum width of 0,6 m, receive natural ventilation, and be separated from adjacent rooms by partitions which stretch from floor to ceiling and contain openings. The solid walls mentioned above can be replaced by glass walls with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30 or EI 15 depending on fire-resistance rating of exterior wall.
  2. b) Exit to an open outside passage whose width is at least 0,6 m and which leads to an adjacent fire subcompartment or fire compartment. Sheltering structures/structural elements that obstruct human movement are not allowed;
  3. c) Exit to balcony or loggia which has minimum width of 0,6 m and is equipped with external ladder which connects balcony and loggia of each storey or balcony, loggia hatch which has minimum dimension of 0,6 x 0,8 m and leads to lower balcony or loggia;
  4. d) Outside exit from rooms which has finished floor elevation not lower than negative 4,5 m and not higher than 5,0 m via windows or doors which have minimum dimension of 0,75 m x 1,5 m or hatches, trapdoors which have minimum dimension of 0,6 m x 0,8 m; in this case, this exit must be equipped with ladder with any degree of slope;
  5. e) Roof access of S0 and S1 buildings with fire resistance categories I, II, and III via windows, doors, or hatches with dimension and ladder as stated under d) of this Article.

3.2.14 Mechanical floors can have exit accesses with minimum width of 1,8 m.

In regard to mechanical floors where technical networks are installed (ductworks, pipelines, and similar structures), fire exits can be facilitated via doors whose minimum dimension is 0,75 m x 1,5 m or via hatches whose minimum dimension is 0,6 m x 0,8 m and exit accesses are not required.

In regard to mechanical floors located in basements, these exits must be separate from other exits of the buildings and must lead outside.

3.3 Means of egress

3.3.1 All means of egress must receive illumination and direction in accordance with TCVN 3890.

3.3.2 Maximum permissible distance from the furthest point of the room or from the furthest work station to the nearest exit accesses which is measured along means of egress must be limited depending on:

– Fire risk categories by functions and fire and explosion risk classes (see Appendix C) of rooms and buildings;

– Number of people evacuating;

– Geometry parameters of rooms and means of egress;

– Fire risk levels of structures and fire resistance categories of buildings.

Length of means of egress along type 2 stairwells shall equal 3 times the height of the stairs.

NOTE: Specific requirements pertaining to maximum permissible distance from the furthest point to the nearest exit accesses are prescribed under regulations applicable to each type of construction. Some specific regulations applicable to common building types are prescribed under Appendix G.

3.3.3 When designing and arranging means of egress, requirements under 3.2.1 must be taken into account. Exit accesses must not include elevators, escalators, and the followings:

– Passages that travel through inner corridors from elevator shafts, through elevator lobbies and elevator vestibules if enclosing structures of elevator shafts, including hoistway doors, fail to meet requirements of fire protection assembly;

– Passages that travel through landings of stairwells as well as passages that travel through rooms where type 2 stairwells are located and not used for evacuation purposes;

– Passages that travel along the roof, except for occupied roofs or roof sections designed specifically for evacuation purposes;

– Passages that travel along type 2 staircases which serve at least 3 storeys and lead from basements or semi-basements, except for specific cases pertaining to evacuation along type 2 staircases stated under 3.2.1, 3.2.2, and 3.2.6.

3.3.4 Finishing materials, decorations of floors and ceilings (including suspended ceilings if any), tiles and covering materials of floors on means of egress must comply with requirements under Schedule B.8 of Appendix B.

3.3.5 Corridors on exit accesses mentioned under 3.2.1, in addition to cases specifically mentioned in the Regulation, must not contain: equipment projecting from the wall at a height below 2 m; pipelines carrying combustible gas and combustible liquid and wall-mounted cabinets, except for communication cabinets and standpipe cabinets.

Corridors, lobbies, and common rooms along means of egress must be enclosed by appropriate fire protection assembly according to regulations applicable to each type of construction. Fire protection assembly enclosing means of egress of buildings with fire resistance category I must be made of non-combustible materials with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30 or in case of buildings with fire resistance categories II, III, and IV, non-combustible or mildly flammable (Ch1) materials with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 15. In regard to buildings with fire resistance category II and fire and explosion risk levels of D and E (see Appendix C), corridors can be enclosed by glass walls. Doors that open into corridors must be fire-resistance-rated doors with fire-resistance rating not lower than fire-resistance rating of fire protection assembly.

Corridors longer than 60 m must be separated into segments whose length is lower than 60 m and is determined in accordance with Appendix D by type 2 fire-resistance-rated partitions. Doors of these fire-resistance-rated partitions must meet requirements under 3.2.11.

When door leaves open into corridors, width of means of egress shall equal clean width of the corridors minus:

– Half the width of the widest open door leaves – when the doors are situated on one side of the corridors;

The entire width of the widest open door leaves – when the doors are situated on both sides of the corridors. This requirement does not apply to corridors (common lobbies) between flat doors and doors leading to stairwells in F1.3 single-stair buildings.

3.3.6 Clearance height of horizontal segments of means of egress must not be less than 2 m, clear width of horizontal segments of means of egress and ramp segments must not be less than:

– 1,2 m – for common corridors for evacuation of more than 15 people from F1 rooms or more than 50 people from rooms of other fire risk categories by functions.

– 0,7 m – for passages to individual work station.

– 1,0 m – in all other cases.

In all circumstances, means of egress must be wide enough and designed appropriately so that it does not obstruct transport of occupied stretchers.

3.3.7 Changes of less than 45 cm in height or curbs are not allowed on means of egress, except for door thresholds. Sections with changes to height must be fitted with at least 3 steps of stair or made as slopes with maximum rise to run ratio of 1:6 (a maximum rise of 10 cm over a run of 60 cm or the degree created by the slope and the horizontal surface not greater than 9,5o).

Stairs in sections with more than 45 cm in height change must be fitted with guardrails.

Except for cases mentioned under 3.4.4, spiral staircases and curved staircases are not allowed on means of egress; steps with varying rise height and tread depth are not allowed in the same stringer and stairwell. Mirrors are not allowed on means of egress.

3.4 Staircases and stairways on means of egress

3.4.1 Width of stringers for human evacuation, including stringers in stairwells, must not be lower than calculated width or width of any exit access doorways in the stairwells and must not be lower than:

– 1,35 m – for F1.1 buildings;

– 1,2 m – for buildings with occupant load on any storey other than the first storey exceeding 200 people;

– 0,7 m – for staircases leading to individual work stations;

– 0,9 m – for other cases.

3.4.2 Pitch (slope angle) of staircases on means of egress must not be greater than 1:1 (45o); tread depth must not be less than 25 cm except for outdoor stairs, rise height must not be greater than 22 cm and lower than 5 cm.

Pitch (slope angle) of open staircases that lead to individual work stations can be increased to 2:1 (63,5°).

Tread depth of winders of curved staircases (which are usually located on the first storey) can be as narrow as 22 cm; tread depth of staircases leading to mechanical floors, attics, unoccupied roofs, and rooms with work stations with occupant load not exceeding 5 people (other than F5 rooms of class A or class B) can be as narrow as 12 cm.

Type 3 staircases must be made from non-combustible materials (except for buildings with fire resistance category V) and must be positioned next to solid sections (without windows or light-transmitting openings) of walls with minimum fire risk level K1 and minimum fire-resistance rating of REI 30 or EI 30 (fire-resistance rating of these solid wall sections is not required in case of buildings with fire resistance category V). These staircases must have landings located on the same elevation as exit accesses, guardrails at a height of 1,2 m and no more than 1,0 m away from windows. Solid sections of the walls can be replaced by glass walls with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30. Fire-resistance rating is not required for doorways leading from corridors into landings of type 3 staircases and from rooms which these type 3 staircases serve exclusively.

Type 2 staircases must fulfill requirements applicable to stringers and landings of stairwells.

3.4.3 Width of landings must not be lower than width of stringers. Width of landings leading to elevators (the landings act as elevator lobbies) in regard to hinged outswinging elevator doors must not be less than the total width of stringers and half the width of elevator door leaves and not lower than 1,6 m.

Intermediate landings of a straight stringers must have minimum length of 1,0 m.

Calculated width of landings and stringers must not be reduced by door leaves that open into the staircases.

3.4.4 Buildings placed in F4 fire risk category by function are allowed to place curved staircases on means of egress when all conditions below are met:

– Vertical rise of stairs does not exceed 9,0 m;

– Flight width conforms to regulations in this document;

– The smallest radius is not less than twice the flight width;

– Riser height ranges from 150 mm to 190 mm;

– The smallest depth of winder treads (measured at 270 mm away from the smaller end of the winder treads) is not lower than 220 mm;

– Tread depth measured at the middle section is not lower than 250 mm;

– The greatest depth of winder treads (measured at 270 mm away from the larger end of the winder treads) is not greater than 250 mm;

– The sum of twice the riser height and the smallest depth of winder treads must not be lower than 480 mm; the sum of twice the riser height and the greatest depth of winder treads must not be greater than 800 mm.

3.4.5 Stairwells and vestibules (if any) must not contain:

– Pipes carrying combustible gas or combustible liquid;

– Wall-mounted cabinets, other than communication cabinets and standpipe cabinets;

– Exposed cables and wires (other than electrical wires for low voltage equipment and electrical wires for lighting of corridors and stairwells);

– Exits from freight lifts and lifting appliances;

– Exits to storage units or mechanical units;

– Equipment protruding from wall surface below 2,2 m in height from the surface of the steps and landings.

Spaces of exit access stairwells and fire protection vestibules which receive positive pressure in case of fire must not contain any occupancy.

3.4.6 In stairwells other than smokeproof stairwells, no more than 2 passenger elevators are allowed if these elevators do not descend past the first storey and enclosing structures of elevator shafts are made from non-combustible materials.

If outdoor elevator shafts require enclosing structures, these enclosing structures must be made from non-combustible materials.

3.4.7 All stairwells, unless otherwise specified in this Regulation, must contain exit discharges that lead to adjacent plots or through entrance hall which is separated from adjoining corridors and rooms by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions with doors which are fitted with self-closing devices and tightly sealed clearance.

If exit accesses from at least 2 stairwells travel through a entrance hall, all stairwells other than one must contain exit discharges other than doors to entrance halls. If only one stairwell leads into a entrance hall, this stairwell must contain an exit discharge.

Exit accesses from 2 stairwells can travel through entrance halls in buildings that have less than 28 m of fire height, no more than 300 m2 of storey area, occupant load of each storey compliant with approved design, and automatic fire extinguishing system compliant with applicable regulations. The case where approved design does not specify the occupant load of each storey, the occupant load can be calculated by dividing floor area of a room, storey, or building by floor space factor (m2/person) under Schedule G.9 and must not exceed 50 people.

In regard to passenger terminals and large lobbies with similar occupancies, if exits from stairwells (or corridors) lead into common passenger lounges which contain exit discharges, exits to open overpass, or to terminal platforms, exits from 50% of those stairwells (or corridors) can be considered exit accesses.

N1 stairwells must contain exit discharges.

3.4.8 All stairwells must receive natural or artificial lighting.

  1. a) In case of natural lighting:

Other than L2 stairwells, lighting can be provided via light-transmitting openings no smaller than 1,2 m2 on exterior wall of each storey.

L2 staircases must contain skylights no smaller than 4 m2 and clearance between 2 flights of stairs no smaller than 0,7 m or light-transmitting openings throughout the height of the stairwells with cross section no smaller than 2 m2.

Up to 50 % of stairwells without light-transmitting openings can be used for evacuation in the following cases:

– F2, F3, and F4 buildings: N2 or N3 stairwells which contain positive pressure in case of fire;

– F5 buildings of class C with up to 28 m in fire height, or class D and class E regardless of fire height: N3 stairwells which contain positive pressure in case of fire.

  1. d) In case of artificial lighting:

If light-transmitting openings cannot be installed in accordance with section a) of 3.4.8, exit access stairwells must be smokeproof stairwells, fitted with artificial lighting equipment which is powered in accordance with note section of 3.4.13 following the principle where power source for lighting equipment must be maintained in case of fire and light provided must be sufficient to facilitate evacuation without impairing visibility.

3.4.9 Smoke protection for N2 and N3 stairwells must conform to Appendix D. If necessary, N2 stairwells must be divided into subcompartments longitudinally by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and passages between subcompartments must be located outside of the stairwells.

Windows in N2 stairwells must be fixed windows.

Vestibules of N3 stairwells must not be smaller than 3,0 m2 or not be smaller than 6,0 m2 if the vestibules simultaneously act as fire service elevator lobbies.

3.4.10 Smokeproof capability of smokeproof vestibules which lead into N1 smokeproof vestibules must receive natural ventilation together with appropriate structural solutions and premise – spatial arrangement. Cases deemed appropriate are:

NOTE: Arrangements of smokeproof vestibules leading into N1 stairwells are depicted under I.3.2 (Appendix I).

  1. a) Smokeproof vestibules must be open, connected to the exterior, usually positioned in corners of the buildings, and meet the following requirements (see Figure I.7):

– When a part of exterior walls adjoins another wall creating an angle lower than 135o, the horizontal clearance from the nearest doorways to the vertex of the angle must not be less than 4 m; this distance can be lowered to match the protrusion length of exterior wall. This requirement does not apply to walkways or where the created angle exceeds or equals 135o, or the protrusion of exterior wall that does not exceed 1,2 m;

Width of wall segment between doorways of smokeproof vestibules and the nearest windows must not be lower than 2 m;

Walkways must not be narrower than 1,2 m; guardrails must be located at a height of 1,2 m; width of wall segments between doorways in smokeproof vestibules must not be lower than 1,2 m.

NOTE: Similar cases are depicted under Appendix I, Figures I.8 a), b), and c)

  1. b) Smokeproof vestibules that travel along single-loaded corridors (see Figures I.8 h), i), and k)) shall receive natural lighting and ventilation via openings that open to and adjoin any of the following spaces:

– Exterior spaces;

– A public way or street or other public space unobstructed to the sky;

– A vertical ventilation shafts whose width is not lower than 6 m and clearance area is not lower than 93 m2;

  1. c) Smokeproof vestibules that travel through a smoke protected lobby which is not smaller than 6 m2 where each dimension is not less than 2 m and is separated from adjacent sections of the buildings by type 2 fire-resistance-rated walls. Doors must be fitted with self-closing devices and tightly sealed clearance. Smoke protected lobbies must not obstruct human evacuation. Smokeproof capability of smoke protected lobbies must be provided by any of the following measures:

– Air vents no smaller than 15% of floor area of smoke protected lobbies and no more than 9 m away from any section of the lobbies. These air vents must be connected to a vertical shaft or a vertical clearance along the building’s height. The vertical shaft or vertical clearance must have minimum width of 6 m and minimum clear area of 93 m2. Walls of the shaft must be able to resist fire for at least 1 hour; the shaft must contain no openings other than the air vents of smoke protected lobbies, exit stairwells, and lavatories (see Figures I.8 d), e), and f));

– Cross ventilation where fixed air vents are located on 2 exterior walls. Air vents on each exterior wall must not be smaller than 50% of clear area of the opposing exterior wall. Distance from any point of the corridor to an air vent must not be greater than 13 m (see Figure I.8 g)).

3.4.11 L1 stairwells and type 3 staircases are allowed in buildings with all fire risk categories by functions with up to 28 m in fire height. If this is the case in F5 buildings of class A or class B, exits to corridors from class A or class B rooms must travel through vestibules containing positive pressure at all time.

3.4.12 L2 stairwells are allowed in buildings with I, II, and III fire resistance category with S0 and S1 fire risk level of structures, F1, F2, F3, F4 fire risk category by functions, and up to 9 m in fire height. This fire height can be increased to 12 m (except for in-patient medical facilities) as long as light-transmitting openings open automatically in case of fire. The number of L2 stairwells must not exceed 50% of total number of stairwells (other than F1.3 and F1.4 buildings). The remaining stairwells must contain light-transmitting openings on exterior wall of each storey.

When building L2 stairwells, each flat of a F1.3 point access building located at a height above 4 m must be provided with a fire exit in accordance with 3.2.13.

3.4.13 In buildings with more than 28 m of fire height (other than F5 buildings of class C and class E that are not regularly occupied) and F5 buildings of class A or class B, N1 smokeproof stairwells are required.

In buildings serving multiple occupancies, stairwells connecting building sections with different fire risk categories by functions must be smokeproof stairwells which comply with this article, unless otherwise specified.

NOTE: N1 stairwells can be substituted in accordance with 2.5.1c) as long as the system that supplies vestibules and stairwells with outside air must be powered by 2 independent sources (a grid-connected source and a backup generator) in order to maintain stable operation of the system in case of fire.

Allow:

  1. a) Up to 50% of total number of stairwells in F1, F2, F3, or F4 buildings as N3 or N2 stairwells where entry to these stairwells travels through vestibules which have similar enclosing solutions as type 1 fire protection vestibules (meaning positive pressure is not required in these vestibules as long as enclosing structures must have similar fire-resistance ratings as type 1 fire protection vestibules);
  2. b) Evacuation from basements of a building with at least 2 basements to be implemented along N3 or N2 stairwells whose entry travels through vestibules which have similar enclosing structures to type 1 fire protection vestibules;
  3. c) The following smokeproof stairwells instead of N1 stairwells in F5 buildings:

– In regard to class A or class B buildings – N2 or N3 stairwells which are maintained at positive pressure at all time;

– In regard to class C buildings – N2 or N3 stairwells which are maintained at positive pressure in case of fire;

– In regard to class D or class E buildings – N2 or N3 stairwells which are maintained at positive pressure in case of fire or L1 stairwells if the stairwells are divided into subcompartments by solid fire-resistance-rated partitions every 20 m in height and passages from one subcompartment to another subcompartment must be located outside of the stairwells.

3.4.14 In buildings where smokeproof stairwells are located, smoke protection must be implemented for all common corridors, lobbies, common spaces, and waiting areas.

3.4.15 In all buildings with I and II fire resistance categories and S0 fire risk level of structure, type 2 stairwells are allowed from entrance halls to the second storey as long as requirements under 4.26 are taken into account.

In F3.1 and F3.2 buildings, the aforementioned stairs are also allowed in regardless of the existence of entrance halls.

3.4.16 In buildings with up to 28 m in fire height, F1.2, F2, F3, F4 fire risk categories by functions, I and II fire resistance categories and S0 fire risk level of structures, type 2 stairwells are allowed to connect at least 2 storeys if exit access stairwells meet requirements under standard documents and those under 4.27. Type 2 stairwells connecting at least 3 storeys are not allowed to be calculated, considered, or used as means of egress in case of fire, except for cases under 3.2.1, 3.2.2, and 3.2.6.

3.4.17 Escalators must be positioned in accordance with requirements applicable to type 2 staircases.

3.5 Fire safety requirements for construction materials

3.5.1 Construction materials shall be utilized depending on occupancies and fire risk levels thereof.

3.5.2 Fire safety requirements pertaining to the application of construction materials in buildings shall correspond to fire risk levels of construction materials under Schedule B.7 (Appendix B).

3.5.3 The use of finishes – decorations, tiles, and flooring materials on means of egress must conform to requirements under 3.3.4 whereas the use thereof in common rooms (other than flooring materials in sports competition surfaces and floors of dancing rooms) shall conform to Schedule B.9 (Appendix B).

3.5.4 Rooms of F5 buildings with class A or class B or class C1 where combustible liquid is used or preserved must have flooring materials with maximum fire risk level of CV1.

3.5.5 Locker rooms of F2.1 buildings are not allowed to use wall, ceiling, dropped ceiling finishes or tiles with fire risk levels lower than CV1, or flooring materials with fire risk levels lower than CV2.

3.5.6 Storage occupancies of books, documents, archives, and similar items are required to use finishes, decorations, tiles, and flooring materials with fire risk level of CV0 or CV1.

3.5.7 In exhibition occupancies of museums, galleries, and F2.2 rooms with similar nature, wall, ceiling, and dropped ceiling finishes with fire risk level higher than CV2 are not allowed; flooring materials with fire risk level higher than CV3 are not allowed.

3.5.8 In mercantile occupancies of F3.1 buildings, wall, ceiling, and dropped ceiling finishes with fire risk level higher than CV2 are not allowed; flooring materials with fire risk level higher than CV3 are not allowed.

3.5.9 In waiting areas of F3.3 buildings, wall, ceiling, dropped ceiling finishes, and flooring materials are required to have fire risk level of CV0.

3.5.10 Fire safety requirements for finishes – decorations, tiles, flooring materials, and testing criteria corresponding to standard documents are allowed as substitution for requirements under 3.5.1 through 3.5.9 and Appendix B, other than requirements under A.4.

4 FLAME SPREAD PREVENTION

4.1 Flame spread prevention shall be implemented by limiting burning area, fire intensity, and fire duration. To be specific:

– Using structural solutions and premise – spatial arrangement to prevent the spread of fire hazards in a room, between rooms, between rooms with different fire risk categories by functions, between storeys, between single-stair buildings, and between buildings.

– Limiting fire and explosion risks related to technology in rooms and buildings;

– Limiting fire risk classes of construction materials used on exterior of building structures, including: roofs; finishes of exterior walls, rooms, and means of egress;

– Equipping automatic and handheld first-aid firefighting equipment;

– Installing fire detectors and fire alarms.

NOTE: Regulations on fire separation distance between houses, public buildings, and manufacturing facilities are specified under Appendix E. Separation distance between combustible liquid storage, open above-ground storage of combustible substances, LPG tanks (LPG stands for Liquefied Petroleum gas), and combustible gas tanks to other constructions must conform to field-specific regulations and standards.

4.2 Apartment buildings, dorms, public buildings, manufacturing facilities, and storage facilities must meet fire prevention and fire protection requirements of this Regulation and standards designed specifically for the apartment buildings, dorms, public buildings, manufacturing facilities, and storage facilities. However, the number of storeys (which translates to maximum permissible fire height of buildings), fire compartment, and the highest storey allowed for conference rooms, lecture halls, meeting rooms, sports quarters, and rooms with similar occupancies must conform to Appendix H.

4.3 Building sections (rooms, fire emergency holding areas, mechanical floors, basements, semi-basements, and other building sections) where firefighting operations are difficult, additional equipment is required to limit burning area, fire intensity, and fire duration.

4.4 The effectiveness of solutions for preventing flame spread can be evaluated by economic – technical calculations which are based on requirements under 1.5.1 for limiting direct and indirect fire damage.

4.5 Building sections and rooms with different fire risk categories by functions must be separated from one another by separating components with fire-resistance category and fire risk levels of structures or by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and/or type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors, unless otherwise specified in this Regulation or field-specific regulations and standards. In this case, the requirements for separating components and fire protection assemblies shall include fire risk categories by functions of rooms, fire loads, fire resistance categories, and fire risk levels of structures.

In regard to a storey that serves at least 2 occupancies, if one of those occupancies is a primary occupancy and occupies at least 90% of the storey floor area and remaining occupancies supports the primary occupancy, areas with different fire risk categories by functions are not required to be separated by fire protection assemblies. In this case, the entire storey must comply with fire safety requirements corresponding to fire risk category of the primary occupancy. This regulation does not apply to cases where fire and explosion risk classes of rooms with supporting occupancies are higher than those of rooms with primary occupancies.

NOTE: Specific requirements for F1.3 buildings:

  1. a) Walls and partitions between single-stair buildings; walls and partitions between common corridors (outside of flats) and other rooms must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30;
  2. b) Non-load bearing partitions and walls between flats must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30 and fire risk level of K0;
  3. c) Rooms with public occupancies must be separated from dwelling units by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors, or type 2 fire-resistance-rated floors in buildings with fire resistance category I.

4.6 When a building has multiple sections with different fire risk categories by functions which have been separated by fire protection assemblies, each section must meet fire safety requirements applicable to buildings with similar fire risk category by functions.

Fire prevention and fire protection system of the building must be selected as follows: when building sections have different fire risk categories by functions, fire resistance category of the building can exceed fire resistance category by function of any building section.

4.7 In regard to F5 buildings, if the technology permits, rooms of class A and class B must be positioned close to the exterior wall or on upper storeys in case of multistorey buildings.

4.8 In regard to basements and semi-basements, rooms of class A and class B are not allowed unless otherwise specified.

4.9 Structural elements must not facilitate the spread of deep-seated fire.

NOTE: In regard to F1.3 buildings or sections thereof, balconies of loggias and balconies of the third storey or higher must be made from non-combustible materials

4.10 Fire resistance capability of components connecting structural elements must not be lower than fire resistance capability of the structural elements.

4.11 Structures creating slope floors in auditorium must meet fire-resistance rating and fire risk level requirements in accordance with Schedule 4 and Schedule 5 applicable to floors.

4.12 When installing technical ductworks and cable lines that penetrate walls, floors, or partitions, the penetration section must be tightly sealed or otherwise protected so as to not reduce technical parameters pertaining to fire of the penetrated structural elements.

4.13 Fire-retardant coatings or impregnation layers applied to exposed surfaces of structures must meet requirements applicable to finishing of the structures.

Technical documents of coatings or impregnation layers must dictate the frequency in which they are reapplied or restored depending on conditions of use.

For the purpose of increasing fire-resistance rating or reducing fire risk level of structures, fire-retardant layers are not allowed in positions where they cannot be reapplied or restored on a periodic basis.

4.14 The effectiveness of fire-retardant substances (materials) in reducing fire risk levels of materials must be evaluated via tests in order to determine fire risk classes of construction materials as stated under Part 2.

The effectiveness of fire-retardant substances (materials) in increasing fire resistance capability of structures must be evaluated via tests in order to determine fire-resistance rating of structures as stated under Part 2.

4.15 Fire-resistance-rated partitions installed in rooms with dropped ceilings must also separate the plenum spaces. Channels and ducts carrying combustible substances in gas form, gas-vapour mix, liquid, and combustible materials are not allowed in the plenum spaces.

Dropped ceilings are not allowed in rooms of class A or class B.

If dropped ceilings are employed for the purpose of increasing fire-resistance ratings of floors of common storeys and floors of topmost storey, the dropped ceilings must fulfill fire risk-related requirements applicable to these floors of common storeys and floors of topmost storey.

4.16 In areas where fire protection assemblies meet enclosing structures of the buildings, including areas where the shape of the buildings changes, measures must be taken to prevent fire from spreading through these fire protection assemblies.

4.17 Fire-resistance-rated walls that separate the buildings into fire compartments must be built throughout the building’s height or connected to type 1 fire-resistance-rated floors and must be able to prevent fire from spreading to adjacent fire compartments when building structures on the burning side collapse.

4.18 Openings on fire protection assemblies must be sealed in case of fire.

Windows on fire protection assemblies must be fixed windows whereas doors, hatches, and dampers must be fitted with self-closing devices and have their clearance tightly sealed. If doors, hatches, and dampers are required to be left open when used, they must be fitted with devices that close the doors, hatches, or dampers in case of fire.

4.19 Total area of openings in fire protection assemblies, other than enclosing structures of elevator shafts, must not exceed 25% of area of the fire protection assemblies. Total area of openings is not limited if fire-resistance rating of opening protectives are not lower than fire-resistance rating of fire protection assemblies (other than type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls). Opening protectives in fire protection assemblies must meet requirements under 2.3.3 and requirements of Part 4.

Vestibules maintained at positive pressure must be fitted to doors of fire protection assemblies which separate rooms of class A or class B with rooms of classes other than A and B, corridors, stairwells, and elevator lobbies in accordance with Appendix D. 2 or more rooms of the same class A or class B are not allowed to use the same vestibule.

4.20 If fire protection vestibules cannot be fitted in fire protection assemblies which separate rooms of class A or class B from other rooms or when doors, hatches, and dampers cannot be fitted in fire protection assemblies which separate rooms of class C from other rooms, a combination of solutions is required to prevent flame spread and infiltration of ignitable gas, vapor, liquid vapor, combustion droplets which can present an explosion threat in the right concentration into adjacent rooms and storeys. The effectiveness of the solutions must be proven.

If openings of fire protection assemblies between rooms of class C, class D, and class E cannot be protected by fire-resistance-rated doors, open vestibules equipped with automatic extinguishing systems are allowed. Enclosing structures of these vestibules must be suitable fire-resistant enclosing structures.

4.21 Fire-resistance-rated doors and fire dampers in fire protection assemblies must be made from non-combustible materials.

Fire-resistance-rated doors, hatches, and fire dampers are allowed to be made from materials rated with combustibility not lower than Ch3 and protected by at least 4 mm of non-combustible materials.

If doors of fire protection vestibules, fire-resistance-rated doors, and hatches in fire protection assemblies face rooms that are not used for the purpose of preserving or using combustible gas, combustible liquid, or combustible materials or implementing technology procedures which contribute to the creation of combustible dust, these doors are allowed to be made from Ch3 materials with minimum thickness of 40 mm and with no voids.

4.22 Channels, ducts, and pipes carrying combustible gas, mixture of combustible gas – vapor, combustible liquid, combustible substances or combustible materials are not allow to penetrate type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls and floors.

In regard to channels, ducts, and pipes carrying the substances and materials other than the aforementioned kinds, areas where the channels, ducts, and pipes penetrate the fire protection assemblies must be fitted with devices that automatically prevent the spread of combustion production along these channels, ducts, and pipes.

NOTE: Ventilation ducts and smoke ducts are allowed in fire-resistance-rated walls of houses, public buildings, and auxiliary buildings if the minimum thickness of fire-resistance-rated walls (excluding duct cross-sectional area) is not lower than 25 cm while the thickness of the segments separating smoke ducts and ventilation ducts is not lower than 12 cm.

NOTE: Openings of fire protection assemblies where water pipes penetrate must be treated in accordance with 4.12.

4.23 Enclosing structures of elevator shafts (other than shafts mentioned under 3.4.6), elevator machine rooms (other than those on the roof), technical channels, ducts, and cabinets must meet requirements applicable to type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors. Fire-resistance ratings of enclosing structures between elevator shafts and elevator machine rooms are not prescribed.

If fire-resistance-rated doors cannot be fitted in the aforementioned enclosing structures of elevator shafts, vestibules or lobbies must be installed and fitted with type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors or automatic shutters which activate in case of fire. These shutters must be made from non-combustible materials and rated for at least E 30.

In regard to buildings fitted with smokeproof stairwells, automatic smoke protection solutions must be implemented for elevator shafts whose exits are not protected by fire protection vestibules which are maintained at positive pressure in case of fire.

4.24 Rubbish terminal rooms, rubbish chutes, and rubbish intake doors must be designed and installed in accordance with standards and technical regulations applied specifically to these apparatus and the following requirements:

– Rubbish chutes and terminal rooms must be isolated from other sections of the buildings by fire protection assemblies; rubbish intake doors on each storey must be accompanied by fire-resistance-rated doors fitted with self-closing devices;

– Rubbish chutes must be made from non-combustible materials;

– Rubbish chutes or rubbish terminal rooms are not allowed to be located in stairwells, waiting areas, or vestibules enclosed by fire-resistance-rated components for evacuation purposes;

– Rooms where rubbish chutes are located or rubbish terminal rooms must be entered from a clear exterior space or through a fire protection vestibule that is regularly ventilated;

– Entrances to rubbish terminal rooms must not be adjacent to exit accesses or exit access doorways of the buildings or fixed to windows of houses.

4.25 Depending on the technology involved, separate staircases are allowed for the purpose of travel between basements or semi-basements with the first storey.

These staircases must be enclosed by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and fire protection vestibules which are maintained at positive pressure in case of fire.

The installation of fire protection vestibules as mentioned above is optional in regard to staircases of F5 buildings that lead from rooms of class C4, class D, or class E in the basements or semi-basements to rooms of the same class on the first storey.

These staircases shall not be included for the purpose of calculating evacuation, except for cases under 3.2.1.

4.26 When installing type 2 staircases from lobby of the first storey to the second storey, this lobby must be separated from adjacent corridors and rooms by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions.

4.27 Rooms where type 2 stairwells are located in accordance with 3.4.16 must be separated from connecting corridors and other rooms by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions. The rooms where type 2 stairwells are located are not required to be separated by fire-resistance-rated partitions when:

– The entire building is protected by automatic extinguishing system;

– The building has 9 m or less in fire height and 300 m2 or less in area of any storey.

4.28 In regard to basements or semi-basements, entrances to elevators must be accompanied by type 1 fire protection vestibules which are maintained at positive pressure in case of fire.

4.29 The selection of building dimensions and fire compartment dimension and fire separation distance must rely on fire resistance categories, fire risk levels of structures, fire risk categories by functions, and fire loads and include effectiveness of fire prevention and fire protection equipment employed, presence, position, and level of equipment of fire brigade, possible economic and ecosystem consequences led to by the fire.

4.30 During operation, all fire prevention and protection equipment must be able to operate as intended.

4.31 The installation of automatic fire alarm and fire extinguishing system must conform to TCVN 3890.

4.32 Prevention of horizontal flame spread on the façade

4.32.1 Type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls must separate exterior walls with fire risk levels K1, K2, K3 and must protrude from the exterior wall surface by at least 30 cm.

Separation of the exterior walls is not required if the exterior walls have K0 fire risk level or type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls adjoin exterior wall vertically (creating vertical fire-resistant barrier) and have minimum width of 1,2 m, minimum fire-resistance rating of E 60, and fire risk level of K0.

If type 2 fire-resistance-rated walls and type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions adjoin exterior walls, they must connect to vertical fire-resistant barriers, have minimum width of 1 m, and fire-resistance rating conforming to Schedule 4 or Schedule A.1 depending on the building’s height. Type 2 fire-resistance-rated partitions must connect to solid exterior walls vertically, have minimum width of 1 m and fire-resistance rating conforming to Schedule 4 or Schedule A.1 depending on the building’s height.

4.32.2 Requirements under 4.32.1 are not required if the requirements under NOTE 6 (Schedule 4) or NOTE 2 (Schedule A.1) depending on the building’s height.

4.33 Prevention of horizontal flame spread on the façade

4.33.1 If exterior walls have openings that are not fitted with fire-resistance-rated doors or contain sections with non-compliant fire-resistance ratings, areas where exterior walls connect to floors between storeys (fire-resistance barriers between storeys) must be designed appropriately in order to prevent vertical flame spread. Fire-resistance barriers between storeys must be designed to meet any of the following regulations:

  1. a) Exterior wall segments that connect to floors between storeys (wall segments between windows of the lower storey and the windows of the upper storey or between wall segments that are protected via any fire protection measures of the lower and upper storeys) must be solid walls, made from non-combustible materials, and have minimum height of 1,0 m;
  2. b) Door awning must be made from non-combustible materials, have minimum width (measured from the surface of exterior walls) of 0,6 m, and have minimum fire-resistance rating not lower than the required fire-resistance rating of exterior wall;
  3. c) Exterior wall segments connect to floors between storeys by tempered glass, have minimum width of 6 mm, are equipped with sprinklers which are associated with automatic fire extinguishing equipment and positioned no more than 2 m away from any other sprinkler starting from rooms (corridors) adjoining exterior walls and no more than 0,5 m away from the inner surface of exterior walls.

NOTE 1: Fire-resistance rating requirements (if any) of components along fire-resistant barriers shall conform to Schedule 4 or Schedule A.1 depending on the building’s height. Vertical separating elements must be able to maintain integrity (E); joints or opening protectives must be able to maintain integrity (E) and insulation (I); fixed connecting elements must be able to maintain load bearing capacity (R).

NOTE 2: The requirements above do not apply to exit accesses and doors of loggias and balconies whose platform is more than 0,6 m in length.

4.33.2 Fire-resistance ratings of structures of exterior walls fitted with light-transmitting glass must meet requirements applicable to non-load bearing exterior walls and requirements mentioned under 4.32, 4.33.

4.33.3 When a part of exterior wall connects to another part of the wall to create an angle lower than 135o and the horizontal distance between the nearest edges of openings in all direction from the angle is less than 4m, openings on the wall part in question must be fitted with fire-resistance-rated doors with minimum fire-resistance rating of E 30 or equipped with sprinkler system.

4.33.4 Regulations under 4.33.1 through 4.33.3 are not required in regard to buildings with 3 storeys or less or fire height under 15 m and open above-ground garages or buildings that meet all requirements under NOTE 6 (Schedule 4) or NOTE 2 (Schedule A.1) depending on the building’s height.

4.34 Prevention of flame spread between buildings

Fire separation distance between buildings (E.1 and E.2 under Appendix E) and fire separation distance by boundaries (E.3 under Appendix E) must correspond to area of openings that are not protected by fire protection measures; fire-resistance rating of the wall segments must be able to maintain fire protection capacity.

4.35 Prevention of flame spread for atriums

The design and placement of open staircases, escalators, moving walkways, glass elevators, similar appliances, and rooms with openings leading to single-loaded corridors in buildings, building complexes, atrium and atriums must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. a) Atriums must be positioned within a fire compartment, openings on storeys connecting to the atriums must allow the placement of escalators, open staircases, and elevators (including glass elevators);
  2. b) Surrounding structures of rooms and corridors that adjoin atriums must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI (EIW) 60 or be made of tempered glass with minimum thickness of 6 mm, be rated for fire-resistance rating of any types, and fitted with sprinklers which are associated with automatic extinguishing system, placed from adjacent rooms (corridors), no more than 2 m away from another sprinkler, and no more than 0,5 m away from partitions;
  3. c) Openings leading to atriums, including openings of escalators and rooms on single-loaded corridors fitted with smoke partitions which have minimum fire-resistance rating of E 45, are dropped down in case of fire, and powered by automatic and remote control scheme, or fitted with fixed smoke partitions. Descending height of smoke partitions must not be lower than the thickness of the smoke in case of fire. Thickness of the smoke shall be determined via calculations during design. In this case, the base of the smoke layer must not be lower than 2,5 m above the floor surface;
  4. d) Storey area within a fire compartment where an atrium is located shall be determined by the sum of area of the bottommost storey of the atrium and area of single-loaded corridors, walkways, and rooms on upper storeys, within the volume of the atrium, and confined by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions. If type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions are not available and/or the atrium is not physically separated from adjoining rooms, fire compartment shall equal total area of relevant storeys;
  5. e) Natural smoke extraction system is allowed in atriums if appropriate evaluation and calculation are present;
  6. f) Light-transmitting panels of atriums must be made from non-combustible materials. In this case, these panel structures must be made from safety wired glass (to prevent injury). Materials which have combustibility not higher than Ch1 and do not create flaming droplets are allowed for the purpose of light-transmitting panels;
  7. g) For the purpose of firefighting in atriums, installation of sprinklers is allowed below protruding structures of floors between storeys, balconies (including below escalators, etc.) instead of below the ceilings of atriums. Sprinklers must be 1,5 m to 2,0 m away from one another and no more than 0,5 m away from edges of openings on the floor.

5 WATER SUPPLY FOR FIREFIGHTING

5.1 Water supply for outdoor firefighting

5.1.1 Fire safety requirements pertaining to water supply for outdoor firefighting

5.1.1.1 The installation of water supply for outdoor firefighting shall conform to TCVN 3890 and other superseding standard documents.

5.1.1.2 Water quality of sources of water supply for firefighting must fit operating conditions of firefighting equipment and fire control methods.

5.1.1.3 Water pipe network for firefighting is usually a low pressure network. If high pressure is sustained in the network, calculations must be made to ensure working pressure of the network. In case of high pressure pipe network, fire pumps must be equipped in order to operate within 5 minutes of fire alarm activation.

5.1.1.4 Minimum pressure in low-pressure water pipe network for firefighting (located above ground) must not be lower than 10 m. Minimum pressure in high-pressure water pipe network for firefighting must be sufficient to guarantee a minimum solid stream height of 10 m when fire flow is at maximum and nozzles are at the highest point of a building. Pressure in pipe network that additionally serves domestic or manufacturing purpose must not be lower than 10 m and not be greater than 60 m.

5.1.2 Fire safety requirements regarding fire flow for outdoor firefighting

5.1.2.1 Fire flow of loop pipe network for outdoor firefighting (for one fire incident) and number of simultaneous fire incidents in a residential area shall conform to Schedule 7.

5.1.2.2 Fire flow for outdoor firefighting (for one fire incident) in buildings of F1, F2, F3, F4 fire risk categories calculated for combined pipelines, distribution pipelines of the pipe network, and pipe network in a small community (a hamlet, a series of buildings, and similar constructions) shall use the greatest value under Schedule 8.

5.1.2.3 Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings with F5 fire risk category for one fire incident shall use flow rates of buildings that require the greatest values under Schedule 9 and Schedule 10.

NOTE 1: When calculating fire flow for 2 fire incidents, use values that equal twice the values of buildings that require the greatest flow rates.

NOTE 2: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting in detached auxiliary buildings shall use values under Schedule 8 applicable to buildings with F2, F3, F4 fire risk categories; if auxiliary buildings are located inside manufacturing facilities, calculate fire flow based on general volume of the manufacturing facilities and Schedule 9.

NOTE 3: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings serving agriculture and rural development with fire resistance category of I and II, maximum volume of 5 000 m3, D and E fire and explosion risk classes, shall equal 5 L/s.

NOTE 4: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of radio stations and television stations regardless of volume of the stations and number of inhabitants in the stations’ vicinity must not be lower than 15 L/s, even when Schedule 9 and Schedule 10 prescribe a lower value.

NOTE 5: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings whose volume exceeds volume under Schedule 9 and Schedule 10 must conform to special regulations.

NOTE 6: In case of buildings with fire resistance category of II and wooden structures, fire flow for outdoor firefighting shall be greater than values under Schedule 9 and Schedule 10 by 5 L/s.

NOTE 7: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings and cold storage of food shall be similar to that of buildings with fire risk class C.

NOTE 8: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of loaded container storage depends on the number of containers and is as follows:

From 30 to 50 containers, 15 L/s;

From 51 to 100 containers, 20 L/s;

From 101 to 300 containers, 25 L/s;

From 301 to 1 000 containers, 40 L/s;

From 1 001 to 1 500 containers, 60 L/s;

From 1 501 to 2 000 containers, 80 L/s;

More than 2 000 containers, 100 L/s;

Schedule 7 – Fire flow for outdoor firefighting in residential areas

Population, x 1 000 people Number of simultaneous fire incidents Fire flow for outdoor firefighting for 1 fire incident, L/s
Buildings no taller than 2 storeys regardless of fire resistance category Buildings from 3 storeys or higher regardless of fire resistance category
≤ 1 1 5 10
> 1 and ≤ 5 1 10 10
> 5 and ≤ 10 1 10 15
> 10 and ≤ 25 2 10 15
> 25 and ≤ 50 2 20 25
> 50 and ≤ 100 2 25 35
> 100 and ≤ 200 3 40 40
> 200 and ≤ 300 3 55
> 300 and ≤ 400 3 70
> 400 and ≤ 500 3 80
> 500 and ≤ 600 3 85
> 600 and ≤ 700 3 90
> 700 and ≤ 800 3 95
> 800 and ≤ 1 000 3 100
> 1 000 5 110
NOTE 1: Fire flow for outdoor firefighting in residential areas must not be lower than fire flow under Schedule 8.

NOTE 2: When supplying water in regions, fire flow for outdoor firefighting and number of simultaneous fire incidents of each region shall depend on population of the region.

NOTE 3: Number of simultaneous fire incidents and fire flow for 1 fire incident in a region with more than 1 million people shall conform to evaluation of special technical requirements.

NOTE 4: In regard to network of group pipelines, number of simultaneous fire incidents depends on total population in a group of pipe network. The amount of water necessary to restore water in group pipelines shall be determined by maximum amount of water for firefighting in residential areas (corresponding to number of simultaneous fire incidents) in accordance with 5.1.3.3 and 5.1.3.4.

NOTE 5: Number of simultaneous fire incidents in a residential area must also include fire incidents in manufacturing facilities and storage facilities in the residential area. In this case, calculated fire flow must also include the flow rate necessary for extinguishing fire of those facilities and must not be lower than values under Schedule 7.

Schedule 8 – Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings of F1, F2, F3, and F4 fire risk categories by function

Building type Fire flow for outdoor firefighting regardless of fire resistance category for 1 fire incident, L/s, by fire volume, 1000 m3
≤ 1 > 1 and ≤ 5 > 5 and ≤ 25 > 25 and ≤ 50 > 50
1. F1.3, F1.4 building with one or many single-stair blocks with the following number of storeys:
≤ 3 10 1) 10 1) 15 15 20
> 3 and ≤ 12 10 15 15 20 20
> 12 and ≤ 16 20 20 25 25
> 16 20 25 25 30
2. F1.1, F1.2, F2, F3, and F4 buildings with the following number of storeys:
≤ 3 10 1) 10 1) 15 20 25
> 3 and ≤ 12 10 15 20 25 30
> 12 and ≤ 16 20 25 30 35
> 16 25 30 30 35
1) For buildings in villages, communes (rural areas), fire flow for 1 fire incident is 5 L/s.
NOTE 1: If capacity of outdoor network is insufficient to achieve the necessary flow rate for firefighting or when pipes are connected to a tree network, tanks or reservoirs with sufficient volume must be taken into consideration in order to maintain fire flow for outdoor firefighting for 3 hours.

NOTE 2: Residential areas where firefighting water pipelines are not installed must have water tanks and reservoirs to supply water for firefighting for 3 hours.

Schedule 9 – Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of F5 buildings

Fire resistance category of the building Fire risk level of structures Fire and explosion risk class of the building Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings with roof openings regardless of building’s width, buildings without roof openings no wider than 60 m, for 1 fire incident, L/s, depending on volume of the building, 1 000 m3
≤ 3 > 3 and ≤ 5 > 5 and ≤ 20 > 20 and ≤ 50 > 50 and ≤ 200 > 200 and ≤ 400 > 400 and ≤ 600 > 600
I and II S0, S1 D, E 10 10 10 10 15 20 25 35
I and II S0, S1 A, B, C 10 10 15 20 30 35 40 50
III S0, S1 D, E 10 10 15 25 35 40 45
III S0 A, B, C 10 15 20 30 45 60 75
IV S0, S1 D, E 10 15 20 30 40 50 60
IV S0, S1 A, B, C 15 20 25 40 60 80 100
IV S2, S3 E 10 15 20 30 45
IV S2, S3 A, B, C 15 20 25 40 65
V E 10 15 20 30 55
V C 15 20 25 40 70

Schedule 10 – Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of F5 buildings without roof openings and wider than 60 m

Fire resistance category of the building Fire risk level of structures Fire and explosion risk class of the building Fire flow for outdoor firefighting of buildings without roof openings and 60 m wide or more, for 1 fire incident, L/s, depending on volume of the building, 1 000 m3
≤ 50 > 50 and ≤ 100 > 100 and ≤ 200 > 200 and ≤ 300 > 300 and ≤ 400 > 400 and ≤ 500 > 500 and ≤ 600 > 600 and ≤ 700 > 700
I and II S0 A, B, C 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
I and II S0 D, E 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
NOTE: Roof openings mean vents positioned on the roof (ridge vents) and not smaller than 2,5 % of the building’s total area.

5.1.2.4 If a building is separated by fire-resistance-rated walls, the highest fire flow for outdoor firefighting shall prevail.

5.1.2.5 If a building is separated by fire-resistance-rated partitions, fire flow for outdoor firefighting shall be determined by overall volume of the building and the highest fire and explosion risk class.

5.1.2.6 Fire flow must be maintained even when fire flow dedicated for other demands is at the highest, including:

– Tap water;

– Household businesses;

– Industrial and agricultural manufacturing facilities where separate pipelines are not feasible due to drinking water quality or economic purposes.

– Water treatment stations, pipe network, channels, and similar;

– If technology permits, a percentage of water for manufacturing purposes can be used for firefighting. If this is the case, hydrants on water pipes serving manufacturing purposes must be connected to water pipes serving firefighting in order to maintain sufficient fire flow.

5.1.2.7 Water supply system for outdoor firefighting of facilities (water pipes, pump stations, tanks, and reservoirs) must be reliable, must not stop supplying water for more than 10 minutes, and must not reduce fire flow by more than 30% within 3 days.

5.1.2.8 If a construction is located in an area where outdoor water supply infrastructures have not been installed or do not conform to regulations under Schedule 8, Schedule 9, and Schedule 10, instructions of competent fire and rescue police department shall prevail.

5.1.3 Calculated number of simultaneous fire incidents

5.1.3.1 Calculated number of simultaneous fire incidents of an industrial or agricultural facility must depend on the area of the facility, to be specific:

– If a facility is as large as 150 ha, count as 1 fire incident;

– If a facility is larger than 150 ha, count as 2 fire incidents.

In regard to calculated number of simultaneous fire incidents of an open or enclosed storage facility for wooden materials: if the storage facility is as large as 50 a, count as 1 fire incident; if the storage facility is larger than 50 ha, count as 2 fire incidents.

NOTE: Area of the facility that serves calculation of water supply system for outdoor firefighting shall be area of the plot on which the facility is located (excluding forest land, park land, agricultural land, or similar land on which no construction is built).

5.1.3.2 When combining firefighting pipelines of a residential area and an industrial facility which is located outside of said residential area, calculated number of simultaneous fire shall be as follows:

– If the industrial facility is as large as 150 ha and population of the residential area is up to 10 000 people, count as 1 fire incident (for whichever location of the 2 that requires the greater fire flow prevails); consequently if population of the residential area ranges from 10 000 to 25 000 people, count as 2 fire incidents (1 fire incident for the industrial facility and 1 fire incident for the residential area);

– If the industrial facility is larger than 150 ha and population of the residential area is up to 25 000 people, count as 2 fire incidents (2 fire incidents for the industrial facility or 2 fire incidents for the residential area depending on whichever location requires the greater fire flow);

– If population of the residential area exceeds 25 000 people, count as 2 fire incidents where fire flow for 1 fire incident equals the sum of the greater fire flow (either for the industrial facility or the residential area) and 50% of the lesser fire flow (either for the industrial facility or the residential area).

5.1.3.3 Firefighting duration must be 3 hours, except for the cases below:

– 2 hours for buildings with fire resistance categories I, II with insulating structures and layers made from non-combustible materials and areas of fire and explosion risk classes D and E;

– 1 hour for kindergartens, preschools, F4.1 and F4.3 buildings in rural areas with fire resistance categories I and II, insulating structures and layers made from non-combustible materials, no more than 3-storey high, and up to 500 m2 of construction area;

– In the case of kindergartens, preschools, F4.1 and F4.3 buildings in rural areas with fire resistance category I and II, insulating structures and layers made from non-combustible materials, no more than 3-storey high, and up to 500 m2 of building area, standpipe system is allowed as a substitution for water supply system for outdoor firefighting;

– At least 5 hours in case of open storage facilities for wood materials.

5.1.3.4 The maximum amount of time for restoring water reserve for firefighting must not be greater than:

– 24 hours in case of residential areas and industrial facilities of fire and explosion risk classes A, B, C;

– 36 hours in case of industrial facilities of fire and explosion risk classes D and E;

– 72 hours in case of residential areas and agricultural facilities.

NOTE: If an industrial facility requires up to 20 L/s of fire flow for outdoor firefighting, the amount of time for restoring water for firefighting shall be:

  1. a) Up to 48 hours for areas of fire risk classes D and E
  2. b) Up to 36 hours for areas of fire risk class C.

If water for firefighting cannot be restored in a timely manner as stated above, water reserve for firefighting must be supplied by n times. The value of n (n = 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0, etc.) varies depending on actual restoration time, ttt, and is calculated using the formula below:

n = ttt / t

In which: ttt refers to the amount of time it takes in practice to restore water reserve for firefighting;

tqd refers to the amount of time it takes according to 5.1.3.4 to restore water reserve for firefighting.

5.1.4 Fire safety requirements for pipe network and constructions built upon them

5.1.4.1 If at least 2 supply pipelines are installed, a valve must be installed to switch between water supply sources and maintain 100% firefighting capacity in case one supply pipeline is partially or entirely disrupted.

5.1.4.2 Water pipe network for firefighting must be a grid network. A branch network is allowed when: water is supplied for firefighting or a combination of domestic purposes – firefighting, the pipe is not longer than 200 m regardless of the required fire flow.

Outdoor pipe network is not allowed to connect to indoor pipe network via grid connection.

In case of residential areas that have population of 5 000 people or less and require fire flow for outdoor firefighting of 10 L/s or less or number of standpipe outlets of 12 or less, a branch network of 200 m or more in length is allowed if tanks, reservoirs, or water towers that contain water amount necessary for firefighting are built.

5.1.4.3 Pipelines must be divided into sections by shutoff valves so that during a repair, only a maximum of 5 fire hydrants will not receive any water.

5.1.4.4 Remotely-controlled and automatically-controlled valves on all pipelines, regardless of diameter, must be operated electrically.

Pneumatic, hydraulic, or electromagnetic valves are allowed.

If remote or automatic control is not feasible or available, manual control is allowed for shutoff valves of 400 mm or less in diameter, electric or hydraulic control is allowed for shutoff valves of exceeding 400 mm in diameter; if separate evaluation allows, manual operation is allowed for shutoff valves of exceeding 400 mm in diameter.

In all cases, manual opening and closing must be allowed.

5.1.4.5 Diameter of supply pipelines and pipe network after supply pipelines must be calculated on the following basis:

– Economic and technical factors;

– Operating conditions in case of disruption of individual segments.

Diameter of water pipelines for outdoor firefighting must not be less than 100 mm for residential areas and manufacturing facilities, and 75 mm for rural areas.

5.1.4.6 Fire hydrants must be at most 2,5 m away from the edge of the road and at least 1 m away from exterior wall of the buildings; underground hydrants are allowed on public roads.

5.1.4.7 Fire hydrants must be installed on pipeline network in a manner that at least 2 hydrants are installed when the required flow rate is 15 L/s or higher or at least 1 hydrant is installed when the required flow rate is less than 15 L/s, the installed hydrants can cover any point along the width of the building, and cover radius of each hydrant does not exceed 200 m along the movement of fire hoses outside the building.

NOTE: Pipe networks serving residential areas with population of up to 500 people can have 3-way hydrants replaced by DN 80 mm standpipe fitted with outlets.

5.1.4.8 Constructions required to be equipped with standpipe outlets and automatic sprinkler system must have pipelines connecting from fire pump stations of the constructions to at least a DN65 2-way or 3-way fire hydrant positioned outside of the exterior wall towards the public road.

5.1.5 Requirements for water reservoirs and tanks for outdoor firefighting.

5.1.5.1 Water reservoirs and tanks that serve specific occupancy must also serve regulation, firefighting, incident aversion, and priming.

5.1.5.2 If firefighting water is collected from water sources that do not meet economic and technical conditions, in all cases, these tanks and reservoirs must contain sufficient amount of water for firefighting according to calculations.

5.1.5.3 The volume of water in tanks and reservoirs for firefighting must be calculated in order to:

– Supply water for firefighting from outdoor hydrants and other fire extinguishing systems;

– Supply water for specific fire extinguishing equipment (sprinkler, drencher, and similar equipment) that lacks dedicated reservoirs;

– Supply the maximum amount of water for domestic and manufacturing purposes throughout firefighting process.

5.1.5.4 Bodies of water which fire engines draft from must be accessible and have parking lots no smaller than 12 m x 12 m with sufficient surface load for fire engines.

When calculating the volume of water in bodies of water, the supply of water into these bodies of water throughout firefighting process shall be added to the calculation if water supply system satisfactory to 5.1.2.7 is installed.

5.1.5.5 When supplying water through 1 supply pipeline, supply an additional amount of water to fulfill purposes under 5.1.5.3.

The additional amount of water can be disregarded if the length of a supply pipeline does not exceed 500 m and serves a residential area with population of 5 000 people or less or serves constructions that require fire flow of 40 L/s or less.

5.1.5.6 The total number of tanks and reservoirs for firefighting in a network must not be lower than 2 (not including tanks and reservoirs for outdoor firefighting of detached constructions).

Tanks and reservoirs in the same network must have the same highest and lowest water level for firefighting.

When shutting off one tank or reservoir, the water remained for firefighting in the remaining tanks and reservoirs must not be lower than 50% of the required water for firefighting.

5.1.5.7 The storage of water for firefighting in specialized tanks or reservoirs or open lakes shall be permitted with respect to:

– Residential areas with population of up to 5 000 people;

– Buildings, regardless of occupancies, that are separate from residential areas and are not installed with pipeline systems for domestic or manufacturing purposes which provide water for outdoor water supply system;

– Buildings that have different occupancies and require fire flow of 10 L/s or less for outdoor firefighting;

– Buildings, regardless of occupancies, that have up to 2 storeys and are smaller than area of the fire compartment applicable to that type of buildings.

5.1.5.8 The amount of water for firefighting of reservoirs, tanks, and artificial lakes shall be determined by calculating amount of water consumed and firefighting duration in accordance with 5.1.2.2, 5.1.2.3, 5.1.2.4, 5.1.2.5, 5.1.2.6, and 5.1.3.3.

NOTE 1: When calculating volume of water for firefighting of open artificial lakes, evaporation and freezing of the water must be taken into account. Minimum water level shall be 0,5 m.

NOTE 2: Access to the reservoirs, tanks, and similar drafting sites must be guaranteed for fire engines.

5.1.5.9 Tanks, reservoirs, hydrants, natural and artificial lakes must be positioned in a way that guarantees service radius of:

– 200 m with the presence of pumper trucks;

– 100 m to 150 m with the presence of portable pumps depending on technical specifications of the pumps;

– In order to increase service radius, branch pipes up to 200 m in length are allowed to connect from tanks, reservoirs, and artificial lakes while complying with 5.1.5.8;

– Distance from drafting sites of tanks, reservoirs, or artificial lakes to buildings with fire resistance categories III, IV, and V or to open storage of combustible materials must be 30 m or less; distance from drafting sites of tanks, reservoirs, or artificial lakes to buildings with fire resistance categories I and II must be 10 m or less.

5.1.5.10 If drafting directly from tanks or reservoirs by pumper trucks or portable pumps is not feasible, install water grates with volume ranging from 3 m3 to 5 m3. Diameter of pipes connecting to tanks, reservoirs, or grates must be calculated depending on fire flow for outdoor firefighting and must not be lower than 200 mm. The joints must be protected by shutoff valve boxes to block water. the opening and closing of the valves must be done outside of the boxes. The pipe end that connects to the artificial lakes must be fitted with mesh.

5.1.5.11 Pressure tanks and reservoirs for firefighting must also be fitted with water gauge and water level indicators which send signals to pump stations or distribution stations.

Pressure tanks and reservoirs of high-pressure firefighting pipes must be fitted with equipment that cuts off water supply to tanks, reservoirs, and towers when fire pumps are engaged.

5.1.5.12 If pressure tanks or reservoirs use compressed air, backup compressors are required in addition to the operating compressors.

5.2 Standpipe system

5.2.1 Houses, public buildings, administrative – auxiliary buildings of industrial constructions must be fitted with standpipe system with minimum flow rate for firefighting conforming to Schedule 11. Flow rate of standpipe system installed in manufacturing facilities and storage facilities shall conform to Schedule 12.

When determining the necessary fire flow, height of solid stream and diameter of fire nozzles under Schedule 13 must be taken into account. In this case, calculate simultaneous operation of standpipe outlets and other extinguishing systems.

Based on fire flow, hydrants shall be classified into:

– Low fire flow (from 0,2 L/s to 1,5 L/s). Equipment for use with low fire flow outlets has diameter of DN 5, DN 10, DN 15, DN 20, DN 25, and DN 40;

– Moderate fire flow (greater than 1,5 L/s).

If low fire flow outlets are used, total fire flow and height of solid stream shall conform to Schedule 11, Schedule 12, and Schedule 13.

Schedule 11 – Minimum number of streams and minimum fire flow of standpipe system

Houses and public buildings Number of streams per storey Minimum fire flow, L/s, of a stream
1. Houses and apartment buildings
≤ 16 storeys, when length of common corridors ≤ 10 m 1 2,5
≤ 16 storeys, when length of common corridors > 10 m 2 2,5
> 16 and ≤ 25 storeys, when length of common corridors ≤ 10 m 2 2,5
> 16 and ≤ 25 storeys, when length of common corridors > 10 m 3 2,5
2. Administrative buildings 1)
≤ 10 storeys and volume ≤ 25 000 m3 1 2,5
≤ 10 storeys and volume > 25 000 m3 2 2,5
10 storeys and volume ≤ 25 000 m3 2 2,5
10 storeys and volume > 25 000 m3 3 2,5
3. Clubs with stages, theaters, cinemas, rooms equipped with audiovisual equipment (for conferences, seminars, and similar purposes)
≤ 300 seats 2 2,5
> 300 seats 2 5,0
4. Dorms and public houses (except section 2) 2)
≤ 10 storeys and volume ≤ 25 000 m3 1 2,5
≤ 10 storeys and volume > 25 000 m3 2 2,5
> 10 storeys and volume ≤ 25 000 m3 2 2,5
> 10 storeys and volume > 25 000 m3 3 2,5
5. Administrative – auxiliary buildings of industrial facilities with volume
≤ 25 000 m3 1 2,5
> 25 000 m3 2 2,5
1) Head offices of state authorities, work offices of enterprises, political organizations, social organizations, post offices, radio stations, television stations, telecommunication facilities, communication device installation service providers, data storage and management centers, etc. and constructions with similar occupancies.

2) Public buildings and constructions with similar occupancies, such as:

– Houses, dorms, multipurpose buildings, hotels, detached houses combining with other functions, motels, rooms for rent, other accommodations established under the Law on Tourism;

– Karaoke venues, discotheques, bars, clubs, beauty salons, massage service providers, recreational parks, zoos, aquariums;

– Electronic appliance stores, supermarkets, department stores; convenient stores, restaurants, diners;

– General clinics, specialized clinics; beauty salons;

– Museums, libraries, galleries, exhibits, storage facilities, bookstores, fairs;

– Stadiums, indoor sports stadiums, sports centers, race tracks, shooting ranges, other sports establishments established under the Law on Sports;

– Airports, air traffic control towers, sea ports, dry ports, inland waterway ports, coach stations, rest areas, railway stations, waiting lounges of gondola lifts, subway constructions, motorized vehicle registration facilities, motor vehicle and motorcycle retailer and repair shops.

-Kindergartens, preschools, primary schools, lower secondary schools, upper secondary schools, multi-level schools, colleges, universities, institutes, intermediate professional education institutions, vocational education and training institutions, continuous education institutions, other education institutions established under the Law on Education;

– Sanitariums, intensive care wards, orthopaedic wards, nursing homes.

Schedule 12 – Minimum number of streams and minimum fire flow for indoor firefighting for manufacturing facilities and storage facilities

Fire resistance category Fire and explosion risk class Fire risk level of structure Minimum number of streams and fire flow, L/s, of 1 stream, for indoor firefighting of manufacturing facilities and storage facilities with minimum fire height of 50 m and depending on volume, 1 000 m3
≤ 150 > 150
I, II A, B, C S0, S1 2 x 2,5 3 x 2,5
D, E No regulations 1 x 2,5 1 x 2,5
III A, B, C S0 2 x 2,5 3 x 2,5
D, E S0, S1 1 x 2,5 2 x 2,5
IV A, B S0 2 x 2,5 3 x 2,5
C S0, S1 2 x 2,5 2 x 5
C S2, S3 3 x 2,5 4 x 2,5
D, E S0, S1, S2, S3 1 x 2,5 2 x 2,5
V C No regulations 2 x 2,5 2 x 5
D, E No regulations 1 x 2,5 2 x 2,5

Schedule 13 – Fire flow depending on height of solid stream and diameter of nozzles

Height of solid stream, m Fire flow, L/s Pressure, MPa, of standpipe outlet with hose reel length, m Fire flow, L/s Pressure, MPa, of standpipe outlet with hose reel length, m Fire flow, L/s Pressure, MPa, of standpipe outlet with hose reel length, m
10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 20
Diameter of nozzle, mm
13 16 19
DN 50 standpipe outlet 1)
6 2,6 0,092 0,096 0,100 3,4 0,088 0,096 0,104
8 2,9 0,120 0,125 0,130 4,1 0,129 0,138 0,148
10 3,3 0,151 0,157 0,164 4.6 0,160 0,173 0,185
12 2,6 0,202 0,206 0,210 3,7 0,192 0,196 0,210 5,2 0,206 0,223 0,240
14 2,8 0,236 0,241 0,245 4,2 0,248 0,255 0,263
16 3,2 0,316 0,322 0,328 4,6 0,293 0,300 0,318
18 3,6 0,390 0,398 0,406 5,1 0,360 0,380 0,400
DN 65 standpipe outlet 1)
6 2,6 0,088 0,089 0,090 3,4 0,078 0,080 0,083
8 2,9 0,110 0,112 0,114 4,1 0,114 0,117 0,121
10 3,3 0,140 0,143 0,146 4,6 0,143 0,147 0,151
12 2,6 0,198 0,199 0,201 3,7 0,180 0,183 0,186 5,2 0,182 0,190 0,199
14 2,8 0,23 0,231 0,233 4,2 0,230 0,233 0,235 5,7 0,218 0,224 0,230
16 3,2 0,31 0,313 0,315 4,6 0,276 0,280 0,284 6,3 0,266 0,273 0,280
18 3,6 0,38 0,383 0,385 5,1 0,338 0,342 0,346 7,0 0,329 0,338 0,348
20 4,0 0,464 0,467 0,470 5,6 0,412 0,424 0,418 7,5 0,372 0,385 0,397
1) DN – short for Diameter Nominal, in millimeter (mm).

5.2.2 In order to calculate pump capacity and water reserve for firefighting, number of streams and fire flow in public buildings in regard to sections located at a fire height above 50 m must be 4 streams and 2,5 L/s each stream respectively. Number of streams and fire flow of F5 buildings with fire and explosion risk classes A, B, C and fire height above 50 m shall be 4 streams and 5 L/s each stream respectively.

5.2.3 In case of manufacturing facilities and storage facilities that utilize structure types prone to fire damage, according to Schedule 12, the minimum fire flow for the purpose of calculating pump capacity and water reserve for firefighting determined in accordance with Schedule 12 must be increased on a case-by-case basis as follows:

– When employing steel structures that are not protected by fire protection measures in buildings with fire resistance categories III, IV (S2 or S3), as well as structures made from natural wood or MDF board (wood in this case has been protected by fire protection measures), increase by an additional 5 L/s;

– When employing combustible materials surrounding structures of buildings with fire resistance category IV (S2 or S3), increase by an additional 5 L/s for buildings with up to 10 000 m3 in volume. Or in case of buildings with more than 10 000 m3 in volume, increase by an additional 5 L/s for every extra 100 000 m3 and every extra amount that does not add up to 100 000 m3.

5.2.4 Number of streams serving each fire location shall be 2 in regard to constructions that require at least 2 streams.

5.2.5 With respect to building sections with different occupancies, fire flow must be calculated individually for each section in accordance with 5.2.1 and 5.2.2. In this case, fire flow for the building shall be calculated as follows:

– In regard to buildings that are not separated by fire-resistance-rated walls, calculated based on overall volume;

– In regard to buildings that are separated by type 1 or type 2 fire-resistance-rated walls, calculated based on volume of the building section that requires the highest fire flow.

When connecting buildings with fire resistance categories I and II by walkways built out of non-combustible materials and protected by fire-resistance-rated doors, the volume used for the purpose of calculating fire flow shall be volume of each building; if the connecting walkways are not protected by fire-resistance-rated doors, volume of both buildings shall be used for the purpose of calculating fire flow and the higher fire risk class shall prevail.

5.2.6 Hydrostatic pressure in domestic – firefighting water system when measured at sanitary – technical equipment which is located at the lowest water level must not exceed 0,45 MPa.

Hydrostatic of separate fire extinguishing system measured at standpipe outlets which are located at the lowest water level must not exceed 0,90 MPa.

During calculation, if pressure in a fire extinguishing system exceeds 0,45 MPa, a separate network of fire extinguishing system is required.

If pressure between valves and couplings of standpipe outlets exceeds 0,4 MPa, installation of membrane and equipment for adjusting pressure is required in order to reduce residual pressure.

5.2.7 Discharge pressure of standpipe outlets must be sufficient to maintain height of solid stream for firefighting at all time of day, even for the highest and furthest point. Minimum height and radius of solid stream must equal the height of the area, from the floor to the highest point of the girder (ceiling), but must not be lower than the following values:

– Not lower than 6 m in case of houses, public buildings, manufacturing facilities, and auxiliary constructions of industrial facilities with fire height of up to 50 m;

– Not lower than 8 m in case of houses with fire height above 50 m;

– Not lower than 16 m in case of public buildings, manufacturing facilities and auxiliary constructions of industrial facilities with fire height above 50 m.

NOTE 1: Pressure of standpipe outlets must be calculated for hose reels of 10 m, 15 m, and 20 m in length.

NOTE 2: In order to facilitate solid stream with fire flow of up to 4 L/s, use DN 50 outlets; in case of greater fire flow, use DN 65 outlets. If economic – technical evaluation permits, DN 50 outlets are allowed for fire flow exceeding 4 L/s

5.2.8 Design of pressure tanks must be able to maintain height of solid stream above 4 m for the highest storey or the storey below the storey where the tanks are located, and not lower than 6 m for the other storeys; in this case, guarantee 2 streams of 2,5 L/s of fire flow each for 10 minutes if the calculated number of streams is at least 2 or guarantee 1 stream for all other cases.

When installing standpipe outlets which act as automatic activation sensors of fire pumps, pressure tanks are not required to be taken into consideration.

5.2.9 If standpipe outlets are installed separately from automatic fire extinguishing systems, volume of reserve tanks must contain sufficient water for use by 1 standpipe outlet and other demand for 1 hour.

If standpipe outlets are installed on automatic fire extinguishing system, working time of the outlets shall equal working time of the automatic fire extinguishing system.

5.2.10 In buildings of 6 storeys or higher, if domestic and firefighting water systems are connected, vertical pipes must be connected in grid on upper storeys. In this case, in order to change water in the buildings, vertical grid network must be connected to one or several vertical discharge pipes fitted with shutoff valves.

Dry pipes systems installed in buildings that are not heated, shutoff valves must be fitted in areas where they cannot be frozen.

5.2.11 The determination of position and quantity of standpipes and standpipe outlets in buildings must meet the following regulations:

– Double outlets are allowed on standpipes in manufacturing facilities and public buildings if calculated number of streams is not lower than 3, and in houses if calculated number of streams is not lower than 2;

– In houses where corridor length is up to 10 m and number of streams is 2 for each area, 2 streams are allowed from the same standpipe;

– In houses where corridor length exceeds 10 m as well as manufacturing facilities and public buildings where at least 2 streams are required for each area, 2 streams from 2 adjacent fire hose cabinets (2 different outlets).

NOTE 1: Standpipe outlets are required in mechanical floors, attics, and mechanical basements if they contain materials and structures made from combustible materials.

NOTE 2: Number of streams per cabinets must not be greater than 2.

5.2.12 Standpipe outlets must be positioned at a height of 1,20 m ± 0,15 m above the floor and in ventilated, sealed fire hose cabinets. In case of double standpipe outlets, they can be positioned vertically and the lower outlet must be at least 1,0 m away from the floor.

5.2.13 Standpipe system in buildings and constructions must have outlets on the exterior of the buildings and constructions with proper coupling size to facilitate connection with portable firefighting equipment. In regard to buildings of 17 storeys or more, fire department connections (hereinafter referred to as “FDC”) for standpipe system must be separated into zones throughout the height of the buildings where each zone is not taller than 50 m. These connections must be fitted with check valves and openly sealed.

5.2.14 Standpipe outlets must be positioned at entrances to corridors (where water cannot be frozen) of stairwells (other than smokeproof stairwells), lobbies, corridors, walkways, and other accessible locations. In this case, the positioning of standpipe outlets must not obstruct evacuation.

5.2.15 In areas where automatic fire extinguishing system is installed, standpipe outlets are allowed on DN 65 pipes or larger after control valve clusters of water sprinkler system.

5.2.16 In confined areas where water can be frozen, pipes of standpipe system after pump stations can be dry pipes.

5.2.17 Shutoff valves fitted to branch network and larger valves fitted to grid network of steel pipes must be positioned in a way that each pipe segment only deactivates at most 5 standpipe outlets on a single storey.

5.2.18 Depending on occupancy of protected structures, the following protection measures for standpipe outlets are available:

– Measure 1: utilize standpipe outlets with moderate fire flow. This measure is allowed for all types of constructions;

– Measure 2: utilize standpipe outlets with low fire flow in combination with dry pipes. This measure is allowed for houses and public buildings;

– Measure 3: utilize standpipe outlets with low fire flow. This measure is allowed for constructions equipped with automatic extinguishing system throughout;

– Measure 4: utilize standpipe outlets with low fire flow in combination with those with moderate fire flow. This measure is allowed for houses and public buildings.

NOTE: In the same construction, multiple measures can be utilized simultaneously.

5.3 Fire pump station

5.3.1 Fire pumps, whether installed separately or in combination with domestic and/or production water system, require backup pumps with capacity similar to that of the main pumps. The quantity of backup pumps is regulated as follows:

– If 1 to 3 fire pumps are required according to calculation, at least 1 backup pump is required;

– If at least 4 fire pumps are required, at least 2 backup pumps are required;

Fire pumps must be connected to a grid power source and generator power source or must utilize internal combustion engine. Backup pumps or backup power source is not required when water is supplied for manufacturing facilities, storage facilities with fire resistance categories I or II, fire and explosion risk classes D or E and the required fire flow for outdoor firefighting is less than 20 L/s.

5.3.2 Fire pumps can be manually operated or remotely controlled and must be engaged within 3 minutes of fire alarm activation. If the required fire flow for outdoor firefighting is at least 25 L/s, a remote control mechanism is required for fire pumps.

5.3.3 If pressure of standpipe system is insufficient to supply the outlets, a remote control apparatus must be positioned in the same area as the standpipe outlets.

6 FIREFIGHTING AND RESCUE

6.1 Buildings and constructions must be able to facilitate firefighting and rescue via the following solutions: structural, premise – spatial arrangement, technical – construction, and organization.

These solutions include:

– Situate fire lanes, fire engine parking spaces, and other accesses for fire brigade and firefighting equipment in combination with roads and walkways depending on occupancies of the buildings or separately;

– Situate outdoor fire escape stairs and other necessary equipment in order to allow fire brigade and other firefighting equipment to reach all storeys and the roof of the buildings, including elevators equipped with “Fire service mode” (hereinafter referred to as “fire service elevators”);

– Situate water supply pipelines in combination with domestic water pipelines or separately and, when necessary, install FDCs, supply pipelines for fire brigade, hydrants, water tanks for firefighting, or other water sources for firefighting;

– Install smoke protection measures on passages of fire brigade;

– Equip life-saving equipment throughout the buildings;

– Situate and build fire prevention, firefighting constructions and fire stations based on the number of employees and firefighting equipment in order to meet firefighting conditions of constructions or areas within the service radius of these stations according to applicable laws.

The aforementioned solutions shall be selected based on fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, and fire risk category by function of buildings and constructions.

With respect to areas with insufficient public traffic and water supply infrastructures according to this Regulation, firefighting and rescue solutions shall conform to specific guidelines of local fire prevention and firefighting authorities.

6.2 Fire lane and fire engine parking space

6.2.1 General requirements

6.2.1.1 Clear width of road surface for fire engines must not be lower than 3,5 m.

6.2.1.2 Fire engine parking lot must have sufficient clear width to allow fire engines to enter and deploy firefighting equipment depending on fire height and fire risk category by functions under Schedule 14.

Schedule 14 – Dimension of fire engine parking space

Fire risk category by function / Parking space dimension Fire engine parking space, m, corresponding to fire height of building, m
≤ 15 > 15 and ≤ 28 1) > 28
1. F1.3 buildings
a) Width of fire engine parking space Not required ≥ 6 ≥ 6
b) Length of fire engine parking space Not required ≥ 15 ≥ 15
2. Buildings of other fire risk categories
a) Width of fire engine parking space Not required ≥ 6 ≥ 6
b) Length of fire engine parking space See Schedule 15 and Schedule 16 See Schedule 15 and Schedule 16 See Schedule 15 and Schedule 16
1) Fire engine parking space is not required if occupant load of each storey, according to Schedule G.9 (Appendix G), does not exceed 50 people and the distance from fire lane to FDCs must not exceed 18 m.

6.2.1.3 Overhead structures on fire lane and fire engine parking space are allowed only when all of the following conditions are met:

– Clear height must not be lower than 4,5 m;

– Length of the overhead structures (measured along the length of fire lane and fire engine parking space) must not exceed 10 m;

– If at least 2 overhead structures are installed above fire lane or fire engine parking space, the clearance between these structures must not be lower than 20 m;

– Length of the last segments of fire lane or fire engine parking space which are not obstructed to the sky by overhead structures must not be less than 20 m;

– Length of fire engine parking space must not include segments covered by overhead structures.

6.2.1.4 Entry from an elevated position (hereinafter referred to as “elevated entry”) must be located along the exterior wall that faces fire engine parking space in a manner that conforms to 6.3 in order to facilitate firefighting and rescue operations.

6.2.2 Requirements for fire lane and fire engine parking space are as follows:

6.2.2.1 F1, F2, F3, and F4 buildings with fire height not exceeding 15 m are not required to have fire engine parking space but are required to have fire lane no longer than 60 m in order to allow fire engines to access any point of the building’s projection.

6.2.2.2 F1.3 buildings with fire height exceeding 15 m must meet all of the requirements below:

– Build fire lane within 18 m of travel distance from the end point of entrances leading to all vestibules of fire service elevators or of exit access stairwells fitted with DN 65 FDCs intended for use by fire brigade (of dry pipe system);

– Build fire engine parking spaces which grant access to at least one exterior side of each block. Fire engine parking spaces must be within 2 m and 10 m from exterior wall of the building;

– Design of fire engine parking spaces and fire lane must satisfy requirements under Schedule 14.

6.2.2.3 Each area of F1.1, F1.2, F2, F3, and F4 buildings or building sections with fire height exceeding 15 m that is fitted with elevated entry must be accompanied by a fire engine parking space to facilitate access to doorways of elevated access. Length of fire engine parking space shall conform to Schedule 15 depending on accessible floor area of the storey that has the highest accessible floor area. In case of buildings with floor penetrations, the value shall be calculated as follows:

  1. a) In case of buildings with floor penetrations, including floor penetrations between basements and above-ground storeys, accessible floor area shall equal the sum of accessible floor area of all penetrated floors;
  2. b) In case of buildings with at least 2 groups of floor penetrations, accessible floor area must equal the sum of accessible floor area of the largest group;
  3. c) In case of F5 buildings, a fire engine parking space is required for firefighting equipment. The length of the fire engine parking space shall comply with Schedule 16 depending on total compartment volume (excluding basements).

If manufacturing conditions do not require entrance, fire lane can be road segments that are 3,5 m wide and reinforced by materials that can support load of fire engines and discharge surface water.

The distance from the edge of fire lane to exterior wall of the building must not be greater than 5 m in case of buildings with fire height less than 12 m, must not be greater than 8 m in case of buildings with fire height ranging from 12 m to 28 m, must not be greater than 10 m in case of buildings with fire height exceeding 28 m.

When necessary, the distance from the inner edge of the road to the exterior wall of the buildings and constructions can be increased to 60 m as long as these buildings and constructions are led to from dead-end streets, have turnarounds for fire engines, and have hydrants nearby. In this case, the distance from buildings and constructions to the turnarounds for fire engines must range from 5 m to 15 m and distance between dead-end streets must not exceed 100 m.

NOTE 1: Width of buildings and constructions shall be determined by dimension lines

NOTE 2: In regard to reservoirs employed for firefighting purposes, an entrance yard is required with each side not shorter than 12 m

Schedule 15 – Length of fire engine parking space for F1.1, F1.2, F2, F3, F4 buildings or building sections

Accessible floor area, m2 Required length of fire engine parking space, based on building circumference, m
Non sprinkler-protected building Sprinkler-protected building
≤ 2 000 1/6 of the circumference and not lower than 15 m 1/6 of the circumference and not lower than 15 m
> 2 000 and ≤ 4 000 1/4 of the circumference 1/6 of the circumference and not lower than 15 m
> 4 000 and ≤ 8 000 1/2 of the circumference 1/4 of the circumference
> 8 000 and ≤ 16 000 3/4 of the circumference 1/2 of the circumference
> 16 000 and ≤ 32 000 Surrounding the building premise 1) 3/4 of the circumference
> 32 000 Surrounding the building premise 1) Surrounding the building premise 1)
1) Fire engine parking space is not required to be parallel to the building premise as long as requirements under 6.2.3 are fulfilled

 

Schedule 16 – Length of fire engine parking space of F5 buildings

Compartment volume, m3 Required length of fire engine parking space, based on building circumference, m
Non sprinkler-protected building Sprinkler-protected building
≤ 28 400 1/6 of the circumference and not lower than 15 m 1/6 of the circumference and not lower than 15 m
> 28 400 and ≤ 56 800 1/4 of the circumference 1/6 of the circumference and not lower than 15 m
> 56 800 and ≤ 85 200 1/2 of the circumference 1/4 of the circumference
> 85 200 and ≤ 113 600 3/4 of the circumference 1/4 of the circumference
> 113 600 and ≤ 170 400 Surrounding the building premise 1) 1/2 of the circumference
> 170 400 and ≤ 227 200 Surrounding the building premise 1) 3/4 of the circumference
> 227 200 Surrounding the building premise 1) Surrounding the building premise 1)
1) Fire engine parking space is not required to be parallel to the building premise as long as requirements under 6.2.3 are fulfilled.

6.2.2.4 Fire lane or fire engine parking space of multipurpose building must meet the following requirements:

  1. a) If non-residential building sections (of category other than F1.3) are located in the lower portion of the building, fire height that serves the calculation of fire lane or fire engine parking space requirements must be based on the non-residential sections of the building;
  2. b) If multipurpose building does not contain F1.3 building section, the required length of fire lane or fire engine parking space must use the greater value which is determined by:

– Total compartment volume of F5 building sections; or

– According to Schedule 15;

  1. c) If multipurpose building contains F1.3 building sections, the required length of fire engine parking space must be calculated in accordance with 6.2.2.3 and must fulfill requirements under 6.2.2.

Basements are required to have fire lane within 18 m from above-ground entrances of vestibules of fire service elevators or exit access stairwells fitted with DN 65 FDCs intended for fire brigade (of dry pipe system).

6.2.3 Fire engine parking space must be positioned in a way that the horizontal distance from the inner edge of the parking space to the center point of the elevated entry is not closer than 2 m and not further than 10 m.

6.2.4 Fire engine parking space must have a level surface. If the parking space is located on a slope, the pitch must not exceed 1:15. The pitch of fire lane must not exceed 1:8,3.

6.2.5 If the length of fire lane or dead end fire engine parking space is greater than 46 m, a turnaround must be built at the end of the dead-end segment in accordance with 6.4.

6.2.6 Public roads can be used as fire engine parking space if they meet requirements pertaining to distance to elevated entry under 6.2.3

6.2.7 Fire lane and fire engine parking space must be clear of obstacles at all time. The void between fire engine parking space and elevated entry must not be obstructed by trees or other stationary objects.

6.2.8 All corners of fire engine parking space and fire lane must be marked on both sides which are no more than 5 m apart by reflective paint which must be visible at night, unless public roads are used as fire engine parking space or fire lane.

Signs must be erected at starting points and end points of fire lane or fire engine parking space and must contain white background, red letters, and minimum letter height of 50 mm. The height from ground level to the lowest point of the signs must vary between 1,0 m to 1,5 m. The signs must be visible at night and must be no more than 3 m away from fire lane or fire engine parking space. All parts of fire lane or fire engine parking space must not be more than 15 m away from the nearest signs.

6.2.9 The surface of fire lane and fire engine parking space must be able to withstand load of fire engines depending on design requirements and type of vehicles of fire and rescue police department where the constructions are built.

6.3 Elevated entry for firefighting and rescue

6.3.1 Elevated entry must be clear and unobstructed at all time while the building is occupied. Elevated entry can be openings of the exterior wall, windows, balconies, walls fitted with glass, and doors that can be opened from both sides. Items and objects of all kind that can obstruct travel must not be located within 1 m of floorspace of elevated entry on the building side.

6.3.2 Elevated entry must face an occupied space. Elevated entry must not be located in storage rooms, machine rooms, exit access stairwells, smoke protected lobbies, fire service elevator lobbies, or a space that lead to a dead end.

6.3.3 The outside of doors of elevated entry must be marked by a sign which is a red or yellow equilateral triangle, has minimum side length of 150 mm, has one of its vertices pointing up or down, contains the phrase “LỐI VÀO TỪ TRÊN CAO – KHÔNG DƯỢC GÂY CẢN TRỞ” (ELEVATED ENTRY – STAY CLEAR) with minimum letter height of 25 mm.

6.3.4 Elevated entry must have minimum width of 850 mm, minimum height of 1 000 mm, lower edge at least 1 100 mm away from the floor on the building side, and upper edge at most 1 800 mm away from the floor on the building side.

6.3.5 Quantity and position of elevated entry of each fire compartment of the building or building section of category other than F1.3 must meet the following requirements:

In case of F1.1, F1.2, F2, F3, F4, and F5 buildings, the required number of elevated entry must be calculated depending on the length of fire engine parking space. Every segment that is at most 20 m in length requires an elevated entry;

– Elevated entry must be physically distant from one another and positioned along the side of the building. The maximum distance between the center of any two elevated entries served by the same fire engine parking space measured on the exterior wall must not exceed 20 m. Elevated entry must be distributed in a way that at least 1 elevated entry is guaranteed for every 20 m in length of the fire engine parking space, except for sections of single-storey buildings of category other than F5;

– In case F1.1, F1.2, F2, F3, and F4 buildings with fire height ranging from exceeding 15 m to 50 m, elevated entry is required on every storey but the first storey and must face fire engine parking space;

– In case of F5 buildings, elevated entry must be positioned above a fire engine parking space and up to fire height of 50 m.

Elevated entry requirements do not apply to F1.3 buildings, including auxiliary sections (for example: gym, club room, rooms with similar occupancies for the building inhabitants) thereof.

6.4 The turnaround must be:

– An equilateral triangle which has side length not less than 7 m, one vertex at the dead end, and 2 other vertices on both sides of the road;

– A square which has side length not less than 12 m;

– A circle which has diameter not less than 10 m;

– A square which is perpendicular to the dead end, distributed evenly to both sides of the road, not smaller than 5 m x 20 m.

NOTE: The dimensions mentioned above are the minimum dimensions, local fire and rescue departments can introduce specific regulations based on technical requirements of firefighting equipment of each area.

6.5 If the road only allows a single lane, every 100 m or less of road length must contain an extended segment which is at least 8 m long and 7 m wide to allow fire engines and other vehicles to avoid collision.

6.6 Two-storey buildings or higher that have flat roof or pitched roof whose slope is less than 25% and are 10 m or more in height which is calculated from ground level to the roof overhang or upper edge of exterior wall (wall surrounding the roof) must have roof access from stairwells or through attics or through type 3 stairwells or exterior fire escape stairs.

Number of roof access and positioning thereof must rely on fire risk category by function and dimensions of the building. F1, F2, F3, and F4 buildings require at least 1 roof access for every 9 300 m2 or less of roof area. F5 buildings shall conform to A.1.3.1.

Fire escape stairs are not required on the front side of the building if the building’s width does not exceed 150 m and water pipes for firefighting are installed in front of the building.

6.7 Attics of the building, except F1.4 building, must have roof access via fixed staircases and doors, hatches, or windows no smaller than 0,6 m x 0,8 m.

Roof access or attic access from stairwells must be positioned along stringers, led from landings, through type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors which are not smaller than 0,75 m x 1,5 m. The aforementioned stringers and landings can be made of steel and must have minimum pitch (slope) of 2:1 (63,5o) and minimum width of 0,7 m.

Attic access or roof access in F1, F2, F3, and F4 buildings with up to 15 m of fire height can be led from stairwells to type 2 fire-resistance-rated hatches with dimensions of 0,6 m x 0,8 m and to fixed steel ladder.

6.8 Clear height of walkways must not be less than 1,8 m in mechanical floors, including mechanical floors in the basements and attics, or not be less than 1,6 m in attics throughout the building. The width of these walkways must not be less than 1,2 m. The clear height and width can be reduced to 1,2 m and 0,9 m respectively in separate segments of up to 2 m in length.

6.9 Buildings with attic mezzanines require hatches on enclosing structures of corners of the attics.

6.10 Areas where roof height changes by more than 1,0 (including those supporting light-transmitting openings – vents) must be accompanied by fire escape stairs.

Areas where roof height changes by more than 10 m are not required to be accompanied by fire escape stairs if a dedicated roof access satisfactory to 6.6 is built for every roof area larger than 100 m2 or if height of lower section of the roof according to 6.6 is not more than 10 m.

6.11 If roof access is provide by means of outside fire escape stairs according to requirements under 6.6, P1 fire escape stairs are required to reach a height up to 20 m and areas where roof height changes from 1,0 m to 20 m; P2 fire escape stairs are required to reach a height above 20 m and areas where roof height changes more than 20 m.

Fire escape stairs must be made from non-combustible materials, positioned in a visible location and no more than 1,0 away from windows, 0,7 m wide. P1 stairs must be fitted with safety cage from a height of 10 m. The safety cage must be made from metal rings with radius of 0,35 m, the center of the cage must be 0,45 m away from the stairs, each ring must be 0,7 m apart from one another, access to the roof must be provided via landings fitted with guardrails of at least 0,6 m in height. P2 stairs must be fitted with guardrails and landings every 8 m or less.

6.12 A minimum clearance of 100 mm must be provided between stringers and guardrails thereof.

6.13 Each fire compartment of building with fire height exceeding 28 m (or exceeding 50 m in case of F1.3 building) or building where distance from the floor of the lowest basement to the exit discharge is greater than 9 m requires at least one fire service elevator.

NOTE: Other technical requirements such as electric cables, control, signal transmission, communication systems, fire protection equipment, and similar systems must conform to specific national technical regulations applicable to fire service elevators

The positioning and installation of fire service elevators must meet the following basic requirements:

– Elevators primarily used for cargo transport must not be used as fire service elevators;

– In normal condition, fire service elevators can be used for human transportation. Fire service elevators can be built in a separate elevator lobby or in the same elevator lobby as other passenger elevators and controlled by an automatic group control system;

– Fire service elevator quantity must be calculated to ensure a maximum travel distance of 60 m from any point on a storey to the nearest fire service elevator;

– If only one fire service elevator is installed, that elevator must be able to reach all storeys adjacent to the burning storeys;

– If multiple fire service elevators are situated in the same shaft, these elevators can serve different sections of the building as long as area of service of each elevator must be depicted thereon;

– In all cases, zoning of all fire service elevators must be similar and ubiquitous, such as elevators that only serve odd-numbered storey or even-numbered storey or every storey;

– Every refuge floor must be served by at least one fire service elevator;

– In normal mode, fire service elevator must not open at these refuge floors while hoistway doors on the refuge floors must remain locked at all time and shall only be unlocked automatically when fire service mode is engaged.

In case of fire, all fire service elevators must allow firemen to:

– Be the only person controlling and operating the fire service elevator to reach the fire while carrying their equipment in an easy, familiar, safe, and rapid manner;

– Be protected from fire and smoke hazards by appropriate solutions, especially when they exit the elevators;

– Have a clear and safe means to access the elevators and access storeys served by the elevators;

– Access potentially burning storeys of the building when at least 2 fire service elevators are installed without having to traverse more than 2 storeys;

– Be protected in separate elevator shafts (instead of sharing elevator shafts with other elevators), each of which shall only facilitate no more than 3 fire service elevators. Enclosing structures of elevator shafts must have minimum fire-resistance rating of REI 120.

Lobby of fire service elevator shall be a vestibule and:

– Shall not be smaller than 4 m2;

– Shall not be smaller than 6 m2 if it is combined with lobby of smokeproof stairwell;

– Shall be enclosed by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions;

– Shall be fitted with DN 65 FDCs for fire brigade;

– Shall allow fire brigade to access every room on every storey of the building;

– Shall have minimum load of 630 kg if the elevator is built in F1.3 apartment building or 1 000 kg if the elevator is built in manufacturing facility or other public structure;

– Shall have minimum speed of H/60 (m/s) where H refers to the lifting height (m);

– Have enclosing structures of elevator cabs made from non-combustible materials or mildly flammable materials.

6.14 Guardrails or handrails compliant with applicable standards are required on roof of buildings where roof pitch is 12 % or less and height from ground level to roof overhang or upper edge of the exterior wall exceeds 10 m and on roof of buildings where roof pitch exceeds 12 % and height from ground level to roof overhang exceeds 7 m. These guardrails and handrails are also required on flat roofs, balconies, loggias, open corridors, outdoor open staircases, stair stringers and landings regardless of fire height of the building.

6.15 Water supply system for firefighting of building must allow access and use by fire brigade and firefighting equipment at all time.

6.16 The supply of water and provision, arrangement of other specialized firefighting equipment and apparatus in buildings and constructions must conform to basic regulations under Part 5 of this Regulation and other relevant technical regulations.

6.17 Fire command center

6.17.1 Houses and public structures with more than 10 storeys; buildings with 2 to 3 basements; public assembly structures (theaters, cinemas, discotheques, karaoke venues that require at least 2 exit accesses according to A.4, and buildings with similar occupancies where occupant load of each storey according to Schedule G.9 (Appendix G) exceeds 50 people); garages (parking spaces for motor vehicles, motorcycles, bicycles), manufacturing facilities, storage facilities with total floor area exceeding 18 000 m2 require fire command centers which must be stationed by standby trained employees on a regular basis.

6.17.2 Fire command center must:

– Be large enough to accommodate equipment required by the building’s fire protection requirements and not smaller than 6 m2;

– Have 2 entryways: one of which leads to an outdoor open space and the other leads to the main corridors for evacuation;

– Be physically separated from other sections of the building by type 1 fire-resistance-rated fire protection assemblies;

– Be fitted with communication devices and act as contact point of fire alarm system to keep contact with other sections of the building;

– Be fitted with panels to monitor and control fire extinguishing equipment, smoke control equipment, and contain layout of the building which specifies location of firefighting equipment.

6.18 All basements in a building with 2 to 3 basements must be equipped with two-way emergency communication system to facilitate communication between fire command centers and:

– Equipment room related to the fire extinguishing systems, especially pump rooms of sprinkler system, supply pump rooms of standpipe systems, electrical rooms, generator rooms, and elevator machine rooms;

– All rooms equipped with control units of smoke control system;

– Fire service elevators;

– Emergency holding areas;

– Ventilation system control rooms.

7 ORGANIZING IMPLEMENTATION

7.1 Transition clauses

7.1.1 Construction design dossiers that have been revised or approved for fire prevention and firefighting by competent authorities before the effective date hereof shall remain effective and shall be complied with.

7.1.2 Construction design dossiers that have been revised or approved for fire prevention and firefighting by competent authorities from the effective date hereof must comply with this Regulation.

7.2 Ministry of Construction is responsible for popularizing and guiding the application of this Regulation to relevant entities.

7.3 Authorities in fire prevention and firefighting and construction in central and local levels are responsible for inspecting the compliance with this Regulation in preparing, assessing, approving, and managing buildings and constructions in their areas as per the law.

7.4 Local competent authorities in fire prevention and firefighting and construction are responsible for cooperating in promulgating regulations pertaining to technical specifications in order to design and build fire lane and fire engine parking space depending on characteristics of local firefighting equipment.

7.5 Difficulties that arise during the implementation of this Regulation should be reported to the Science – Technology and Environment Department – Ministry of Construction.

 

APPENDIX A

(regulations)

ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC BUILDING TYPES

A.1 Manufacturing facility and storage facility

A.1.1 Scope

A.1.1.1 F5.1 and F5.2 manufacturing facilities for producing products and goods with up to 1 basement.

A.1.1.2 Not applicable to buildings with special occupancies (facilities for manufacturing or preserving explosive substances and materials; storage facilities of petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, combustible gas, and spontaneous combustion substances; facilities for manufacturing or storing toxic chemicals; mining constructions; and constructions with similar occupancies).

A.1.1.3 Not applicable to the following buildings and rooms:

  1. a) Storage facilities and storage rooms for storing (keeping) dried mineral fertilizer, plant protection chemicals, radioactive substances, non-flammable gases contained in bottles at pressure greater than 70 kPa, cement, cotton, wheat flour, cattle feed, fur, fur-based products, and agricultural products;
  2. b) Buildings or rooms used as cold storage and cereal storage;
  3. c) Manufacturing facilities with at least 2 basements.

A.1.1.4 Not applicable to manufacturing facilities that employ foreign standards pertaining to fire prevention and firefighting in design according to Vietnamese laws as long as competent fire and rescue police departments approve.

A.1.2 General provisions

A.1.2.1 Total building area shall equal the sum of area of all storeys (above-ground storeys, including mechanical floors, semi-basements, and basements) which is measured within the inside of surrounding walls (or the center of surrounding pillars in regard to areas that lack surrounding walls); tunnels; floors of supporting platforms, floors of mezzanines; floors of other supporting platforms in the buildings; loading platforms (docks); corridors in the buildings and corridors connecting other buildings. Total building area shall not include: area of mechanical floors whose height from the floor to the lowest point of upper protruding structure is less than 1,8 m (where walkways for maintaining service ducts are not required); area above the dropped ceiling; floor areas of multi-level supporting platforms used for maintaining rails below bridge crane, maintaining crane, conveyor belts, monorails, and lighting appliances.

A room whose clear height extends to 2 storeys in a multistorey building shall be included in total building area of a storey.

For the purpose of determining the total number of storeys of the building, the floor of each supporting platform and mezzanine that is located at any elevation and larger than 40% of a storey’s area shall count as one storey.

Area of a storey in a fire compartment shall be determined by inner circumference of surrounding walls of that storey, excluding stairwell area. If area of a storey includes floor of supporting platforms, floor of multilevel supporting platforms, and floor of mezzanine, all of those floor areas shall count in case of a single-storey building; only floor areas of supporting platforms, multilevel supporting platforms, and mezzanines situated between vertical clearance of floor frames of supporting platforms, multilevel supporting platforms, and mezzanines whose area at every elevation does not exceed 40% of floor area of the storey shall count in case of a multistorey building. Area of exterior loading platforms (docks) dedicated to road and railway transport shall not count towards floor area in fire compartment.

Building area shall be determined by outside circumference of buildings at height of the wall skirt, including any projection, underpass, and building section that lacks enclosing structures.

A.1.2.2 Building volume shall be the sum of volume of the above-ground sections calculated from the reference plane and the below-ground sections from the finish floor of the lowest basement to the reference plane.

Volume of above-ground sections and below-ground sections of the building shall be calculated by exterior dimensions of enclosing structures, including light-transmitting openings and vents of each section of the building.

A.1.2.3 Height of rooms calculated from the floor to the lowest point of ceiling or roof projection must not be lower than 2,2 m. Height of regularly attended walkways and means of egress calculated from the floor to the lowest point of service duct and equipment projection must not be lower than 2,0 m; such height of non-regularly attended walkways must not be lower than 1,8 m. Clear height of passages for fire engine entrance must not be lower than 4,5 m.

A.1.2.4 In regard to mechanical floors, if the involved technology requires walkways for maintenance of technical equipment, service ducts, and auxiliary technology equipment located therein, the height of these walkways must be selected in a manner that satisfies A.1.2.3.

A.1.2.5 Exits from basements must be located outside of operation range of lifting and carrying equipment.

A.1.2.6 Width of vestibules and fire protection vestibules outside of elevator doors must be at least 0,5 m wider than elevator door width (0,25 m to each door leaf), and depth of these vestibules must not be less than 1,2 and must be at least 0,2 m wider than elevator door width.

If these structures are used by wheelchair-bound persons, these vestibules must be at least 1,8 m deep and at least 1,4 m wide.

A.1.2.7 Rooms with fire and explosion risk classes A and B are required to be fitted with detachable exterior sheets.

If detachable exterior sheets of glass are not viable due to insufficient space, the following non-combustible materials are allowed:

– Steel, aluminum;

– Soft roof tiles, metal roof tiles;

– Rock and materials that retain heat effectively.

Area of detachable exterior sheets must be determined via calculation. If figures for calculation are insufficient, area of detachable exterior sheets must not be less than 0,05 m2 per 1 m3 of volume of class A rooms and not be less than 0,03 m2 per 1 m3 of volume of class B rooms.

NOTE 1: If glass of 3 mm, 4 mm, or 5 mm thick is used as detachable exterior sheets, the minimum area must be 0,8 m2, 1,0 m2, and 1,5 m2 respectively. Tempered glass, double pane, triple pane, stalinite glass, and polycarbonate are not allowed for use as detachable exterior sheets.

NOTE 2: Roll-type coverings of detachable exterior sheets of the roof must be grouped into sections not larger than 180 m2.

NOTE 3: Calculated load of detachable exterior sheets on the roof must not exceed 0,7 kPa.

A.1.3 Premise – spatial arrangement

A.1.3.1 In regard to building where height from ground plane to upper edge or ledge of walls supporting the roof exceeds or equals 10 m, every 40 000 m2 of roof surface requires 1 roof access, roof surface that does not add up to 40 000 m2 also requires 1 roof access. Roof access shall be outdoor open steel stairs in case of single-storey building or stairwells in case of multistorey building.

In regard to building whose height from ground plane to the topmost floor does not exceed 30 m and height of the topmost storey is insufficient to allow stairwell fitted with roof access, an open steel ladder is allowed in order to grant access to the roof from the stairwell.

A.1.3.2 The positioning of rooms with different fire and explosion risk classes in the same building and separation thereof must comply with fire-resistance rating requirements of enclosing structures of those rooms, means of egress, exit accesses, smoke ventilation equipment, vestibules, fire protection vestibules, stairwells, ladders, and roof accesses mentioned under relevant sections of this Regulation and specialized regulations and standards.

Rooms with storage and administrative occupancies are allowed in manufacturing facilities; storeys with manufacturing or administrative occupancies are allowed in storage facilities if fire separation distance under Appendix E and relevant regulations of this Regulation are fulfilled.

In regard to S0 single-storey transit storage (bonded warehouses) with fire resistance category I or II, if exit corridors are enclosed by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and maintained at positive pressure in case of fire, the length of these corridors shall be excluded from the length of means of egress.

A.1.3.3 If storage is located in manufacturing facilities, the maximum area and height (number of storeys) of storage in a fire compartment must not exceed values under Appendix H.

If area of supporting platform floor, multilevel supporting platform floor, and mezzanine floor exceeds 40% of floor area, floor area shall be determined in the same manner as multistorey building.

A.1.3.4 If technology lines with different fire and explosion risk classes are located in the same room or building, measures must be taken to prevent the spread of fire and explosion between these technology lines. Effectiveness of these measures must be assessed in technology section of the project. If selected measures are ineffective, technology lines with different fire and explosion risk classes must be positioned in separate rooms and be physically separated in accordance with Appendix E.

A.1.3.5 Basements containing C1, C2, C3 rooms must be separated into fire subcompartments no larger than 3 000 m2 each by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions. These fire subcompartments must be fitted with smoke protection in accordance with Appendix D. The upper floor of these basements must be at least type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors. These storeys must be physically separated from corridors by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions.

Corridors must have minimum width of 2 m and lead directly outside or through a smokeproof stairwells.

A.1.3.6 All parts of loading platforms (docks) and enclosing structures thereof that are adjacent to S0, S1 buildings with fire resistance categories I, II, III, and IV must be made of non-combustible materials.

A.1.3.7 Loading platforms (docks) and loading stations must have at least 2 ladders or ramps that are physically separate from one another.

A.1.3.8 Selection of structures and materials of finish and coatings of storage facilities and storage rooms must take into account related factors in order to minimize dust.

Floor surface in areas where combustible gas, dust, liquid, and other substances at an appropriate concentration which combust or explode upon contact with sparks caused by collision with the floor or static charge can form must be protected from static build up and sparks caused by collision.

Storage of goods where temperature exceeds 60 oC must utilize heat-resistant floor.

A.1.3.9 Storage rooms in manufacturing facilities must be isolated from rooms of other occupancies according to below regulations.

Manufacturing rooms, mechanical rooms, and storage rooms (F5 fire risk category by function) with fire and explosion risk classes C1 to C3 which are positioned in houses and public buildings, unless otherwise specified, must be physically separated from other rooms and corridors by:

– Type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and at least type 2 fire-resistance-rated floors in case of buildings with fire resistance category I; or

– Type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and at least type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors in case of buildings with fire resistance categories I, II, III, IV.

Storage rooms, manufacturing rooms, laboratories, and rooms with similar occupancies with fire and explosion risk classes of C1, C2, and C3 or higher are not allowed in other buildings with expected occupant load of 50 people.

Manufacturing rooms, mechanical rooms, and storage rooms with fire and explosion risk class of C4 located in houses or public buildings must be physically separated from other rooms and corridors by at least type 2 fire-resistance-rated corridors.

Storage rooms with fire and explosion risk classes of C1, C2, and C3 in manufacturing facilities must be physically separated from other sections by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and at least type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors. Storage rooms that utilize high racks for storage must be physically separated by type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls and type 1 fire-resistance-rated floors. If these storage rooms contain products with fire and explosion risk classes of C1, C2, and C3 and are located in manufacturing facilities, surrounding walls are required.

NOTE: High racks mean racks that are taller than 5,5 m

A.1.3.10 Storage of goods with fire and explosion risk class of C on high racks must be located in S0 single-storey buildings with fire resistance categories I through IV.

Racks must have horizontal platforms that are solid, made of non-combustible materials, and no more than 4 m away from one another vertically.

A.1.3.11 If a storage room with the same fire and explosion risk class is physically separated by partitions due to technology or hygiene requirements, requirements applicable to the partitions must be specified in the technology presentation of the project.

A.1.3.12 Window openings of storage facilities must be additionally fitted with awning windows whose area is determined in a manner that guarantees smoke ventilation in case of fire.

Windows are not required in storage rooms if smoke ventilation system compliant with Appendix D has been installed.

A.2 F1.2, F4.2, F4.3 buildings (with fire height from exceeding 50 m to 150 m) and multipurpose buildings

A.2.1 These buildings must have minimum fire resistance category of I.

A.2.2 These buildings must be physically separated into fire compartments longitudinally where height of each fire compartment must not exceed 50 m. Fire compartments must be physically separated by fire-resistance-rated walls and fire-resistance-rated floors or mechanical floors. Mechanical floors shall be physically separated by fire-resistance-rated floors with minimum fire-resistance rating of REI 90. Fire-resistance ratings of these fire-resistance-rated walls and fire-resistance-rated floors shall conform to A.2.24.

Each block or fire compartment (if not separated into blocks) must be installed with independent fire protection system (that operates as intended when necessary and is not dependent on activation of fire protection systems in other fire compartments) and contain room where first-aid firefighting equipment is located.

A.2.3 The maximum allowable area of an above-ground storey contained in a fire compartment is:

– Not larger than 3 000 m2 – for base blocks;

– Not larger than 1 500 m2 – for F1.2 buildings (hotels, dorms);

– Not larger than 2 000 m2 – for F1.3 buildings;

– Not larger than 2 500 m2 – for remaining cases.

Walls and partitions between blocks must have fire-resistance ratings not lower than values under A.2.24.

A.2.4 Rooms with assembly occupancy and number of fixed seats ranging from exceeding 300 to 600 must not be located at fire height above 15 m; number of fixed seats ranging from exceeding 150 – 300 must not be located at fire height above 40 m; number of fixed seats ranging from 100 to 150 must not be located at fire height above 50 m. Public rooms located at fire height above 50 m must have no more than 100 fixed seats.

A.2.5 If F3.2 and F3.6 food and drink vendors and public rooms are located at fire height above 50 m and have occupant load exceeding 50 people according to Schedule G.9 (Appendix G), travel distance from exit accesses of all rooms in the building to the nearest smokeproof stairwell must not exceed 20 m.

NOTE: In regard to storeys located at fire height above 50 m without corridors enclosed by fire protection assemblies according to A.2.24, travel distance to the entrance of smokeproof stairwells must be calculated from the furthest point of rooms.

Roofs where food and drink vendors are located and spaces used for sightseeing or recreational activities where occupant load exceeds 50 people according to Schedule G.9 (Appendix G) require at least 2 exit accesses.

A.2.6 Rooms with assembly occupancy where occupant load may exceed 500 people must be physically separated from other rooms by fire-resistance-rated walls and floors whose fire-resistance ratings comply with A.2.24. Travel distance from exit accesses of these rooms to the nearest smokeproof stairwells must not exceed 20 m.

A.2.7 Rooms regularly attended by persons with disabilities must not be located at any storey above the second storey. Rooms regularly attended by wheelchair-bound persons must not be located at any storey above the first storey.

If persons with disabilities attend upper storeys, additional measures must be taken to ensure that they can safely move towards exit accesses or emergency holding areas in case of fire. The additional measures must be explained via calculations on the basis of applicable standard documents.

A.2.8 Storage rooms of newspaper, written materials, and combustible materials that are larger than 50 m2 must not be located at fire height above 50 m or below or adjacent to rooms with occupant load exceeding 50 people according to Schedule G.9 (Appendix G).

A.2.9 Rooms with fire and explosion risk classes of A and B are not allowed in the building.

A.2.10 Transformers of substations positioned in or adjacent to the building must be dry-type transformer or oil-type transformers filled with insulating oil, located on the first storey, semi-basement, the first basement, or any mechanical floor. Electrical substations must be physically separated by fire protection assemblies with fire-resistance rating compliant with A.2.24.

Diesel generators are allowed as independent power source and backup power source. In this case, rooms that contain diesel generators can be located in the first basement or higher of building or detached building when the following requirements are met:

– Fire-resistance ratings of load bearing walls and floors of these rooms must not be lower than REI 180;

– Travel between rooms that contain diesel generators and other rooms must cross type 1 fire protection vestibules which are maintained at positive pressure in case of fire;

– In order to prevent flame spread of fuel, trays must be positioned below the generators in case fuel spill overflows from the containment berm in order to collect the spilled fuel;

– Analysis instruments must be installed in order to detect fuel leak and emit signals to rooms of fire stations; emergency venting must also be installed in form of mechanical ventilation;

– Automatic fire extinguishing equipment must be installed in rooms where diesel generators are located;

– Volume of oil containers in frame structures of each diesel generator must not exceed 1 m3;

– Capacity of diesel generator and the supply, storage of fuel must guarantee operation of fire protection systems and must be determined depending on necessary activation time of the generators in case of fire.

Generators running on gas are allowed in detached building as long as fire safety requirements under relevant standard documents are fulfilled.

A.2.11 Elevator lobbies must be physically separated from adjacent corridors and rooms by fire-resistance-rated partitions with fire-resistance rating compliant with A.2.24.

Materials of elevator cabs must be similar to those of fire service elevators.

A.2.12 Fire service elevators are required in separate elevator shafts with independent elevator lobbies. Exit discharges from these elevators must not go through common lobbies.

The number of fire service elevators in each fire compartment must be calculated to ensure that travel distance from these elevators to any point of storeys that they serve must not exceed 45 m.

Structural elements that enclose fire service elevator cabs (walls, floors, ceilings, doors) must be built from non-combustible materials or Ch1 materials.

Tile and finish materials of enclosing structural elements of cabs shall conform to A.2.25.

A.2.13 Fire-resistance rating of elevator shafts and elevator machine rooms shall conform to A.2.24.

A.2.14 Corridors must be separated into compartments by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions. Fire-resistance-rated doors installed on these fire-resistance-rated partitions must be fitted with door closers and have their clearance (other than bottom clearance) sealed. The length of each corridor compartment must:

– Not exceed 30 m in case of residential blocks.

– Not exceed 60 m in case of non-residential blocks.

A.2.15 All smokeproof stairwells of building must have discharges on the first storey and roof accesses through type 1 fire-resistance-rated doors.

A.2.16 Means of egress must be designed for 1,25 times the occupant load (other than rooms where performance shows take place and other rooms with regulated number of seats).

A.2.17 If sections of a building or storey are simultaneously occupied by different types of occupants or serve multiple occupancies at the same time, evacuation requirements of the entire building or storey must be calculated on the basis of whichever occupancy has the strictest evacuation requirements or evacuation requirements must be determined for each building section individually.

A.2.18 If a building, a storey, or a section thereof serves multiple occupancies at different time of day, the occupancy that involves the highest occupant load must serve as the basis for determining evacuation requirements.

A.2.19 If doors to flats or rooms are located on a dead-end corridor, travel distance from these doors to the nearest exit accesses must not exceed 15 m. If these doors are located between smokeproof stairwells, the travel distance must not exceed 20 m.

A.2.20 Refuge floors and emergency holding areas compliant with A.3.2 are required in buildings with fire height above 100 m.

A.2.21 Fire lanes and fire engine parking spaces compliant with 6.2 are required.

A.2.22 Maintenance rooms for on-site firefighting equipment must be equipped in accordance with applicable laws and located on the storey below each fire compartment. Storage room of first-aid firefighting equipment on the first storey must be adjacent to room where fire protection system control center is located. Storage rooms of first-aid firefighting equipment in fire compartments on upper storeys must be at most 30 m away from smokeproof stairwells or fire service elevators.

A.2.23 Prevention of flame spread on the building exterior must conform to 4.32 and 4.33.

A.2.24 Fire resistance requirements of buildings structures and components

A.2.24.1 Fire-resistance rating of structural elements must not be lower than values under Schedule A.1.

Schedule A.1 – Minimum fire-resistance rating of structural elements

Name of structural elements (building components) Minimum fire-resistance rating of building with fire height of, m
> 50 and ≤ 100 > 100 and ≤ 150
(1) (2) (3)
1. Load bearing pillars, load bearing walls, bracing structures, truss, parts of floor between storeys and roofs of buildings where attics are absent (girders, beams, floorboards) 1) R 150 R 180
2. Non-load bearing exterior walls E 60 E 60
3. Floors between storeys (including attics and storeys above the basements) REI 120 REI 120
4. Parts of the roof
4.1 Tiles RE 30 RE 30
4.2 Girders, beams, purlins, frames, bracing R 30 R 30
5. Parts of the roof serving evacuation and rescue
5.1 Tiles RE 120 RE 120
5.2 Girders, beams, purlins, frames, bracing R 150 R 180
6. Staircase structures
6.1 Inner walls REI 150 REI 180
6.2 Stringers and landings R 60 R 60
7. Fire-resistance-rated walls and fire-resistance-rated floors REI 150 REI 180
8. Shaft structures
8.1 Elevator shafts, service duct shafts, technical ducts and trays that do not penetrate fire compartments REI 120 REI 120
8.2 Elevator shafts, service duct shafts, technical ducts and trays that penetrate fire compartments; fire service elevator shafts REI 150 1) REI 180 1)
9. Non-load bearing inner walls (partitions)
9.1 Inner walls between dwelling units of hotels, offices, and similar rooms El 60 El 60
9.2 Walls separating rooms from atriums; corridors from dwelling units of hotels and offices El (EIW) 60 El (EIW) 60
9.3 Separating walls for emergency generators and diesel power stations REI 180 REI 180
9.4 Walls separating mercantile rooms larger than 2 000 m2 and separating assembly rooms with occupant load exceeding 500 people El 180 El 180
9.5 Walls separating flats from one another El 90 El 90
9.6 Walls separating flats from corridors and from other rooms El 30 El 60
9.7 Walls separating elevator lobbies El (EIW) 60 El (EIW) 60
9.8 Walls separating elevator lobbies from vestibules of fire service elevators El (EIW) 60 El (EIW) 90
9.9 Walls separating dry saunas from other rooms El (EIW) 60 El (EIW) 60
9.10 Walls separating rooms of life service venues larger than 300 m2 El 60 El 60
9.11 Walls separating rooms storing newspaper, printed materials, and similar El 90 El 120
9.12 Walls separating rooms of electrical substations El 60 El 60
1) Parts of the building such as load bearing walls, load bearing pillars, truss structures, solid partitions, parts of the floor (girders or floorboards) are classified as load bearing parts of the building if they contribute to general stability and integrity of the building in case of fire. Load bearing parts that do not contribute to general stability of the building must be specified in technical documents of the building by design departments.
NOTE 1: R rating of loading bearing structural elements that are cushion of fire-resistance-rated floors must not be lower than R rating of the fire-resistance-rated floors.

NOTE 2: Requirements pertaining to fire-resistance ratings of non-load bearing exterior walls are allowed in accordance with Note 5 and Note 6 under Schedule 4.

A.2.24.2 Doors, hatches, and protective openings on structural elements that are required to have some fire resistance capacity in accordance with Schedule A.1 must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30 (EIW 30) if the structural elements have fire-resistance rating of EI 60 (EIW 60) and minimum fire-resistance of EI 60 (EIW 60) in all other cases.

A.2.24.3 Doors of elevator lobbies and doors of elevator machine rooms must be airtight doors.

A.2.24.4 Service ducts where water supply and drainage pipelines made from non-combustible materials are located can be fitted with type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors and dampers (EI 30).

A.2.25 Material use based on fire risk categories

A.2.25.1 Roof tiling and covering materials must be non-combustible materials. If waterproof coating of the roof is made from combustible materials, the waterproof coating must be covered by non-combustible materials with minimum thickness of 50 mm.

A.2.25.2 Wall and ceiling finishes and floor coating on means of egress (corridors, entrance halls, waiting lounges) and in mechanical floors must be made from non-combustible materials.

A.2.25.3 Wall, ceiling finishes, dropped ceiling decorations, and floor tiles in rooms must conform to Schedule B.9 (Appendix B).

A.2.25.4 In large rooms with more than 50 seats for the audience, parts of soft chairs, curtains and blinds must not be made from ignitable materials (BC3). Seats in these rooms must not be made from materials with toxic potency higher than DT2 regardless of the number of seats.

Fabric products for interior decorations must not be made from ignitable materials (BC3).

A.2.26 Installation of fire alarms, firefighting equipment, and rescue equipment.

A.2.26.1 Buildings must be equipped with automatic addressable fire alarm; automatic fire alarm in flats, offices, corridors, elevator lobbies, waiting lounges, common lobbies, regularly attended mechanical rooms, and similar rooms, except for rooms that are always wet in normal conditions.

A.2.26.2 Buildings must be equipped with loud speaker and evacuation guidance systems.

A.2.27 Water supply for firefighting

A.2.27.1 Water supply system for indoor firefighting (pipelines and equipment) must be designed separately with pump stations located separately from rooms with other occupancies.

A.2.27.2 Fire flow of each fire compartment must be sufficient for 4 streams where fire flow of each stream must not be lower than 2,5 L/s.

A.2.27.3 Standpipe outlets with minimum fire flow of 2,5 L/s are allowed in fire compartments where public rooms are located as long as standpipes which help the outlets to achieve fire flow of 5 L/s are installed.

A.2.27.4 2 couplings with appropriate diameter are required to connect water supply system for indoor firefighting and automatic fire extinguishing system with portable outdoor firefighting equipment.

Shutoff valves and check valves are required on the building side to adjust amount of water supplied into the system. Outlets located outside of the building must be positioned in locations that are accessible for fire engines and must be marked by understandable and clear markings.

A.2.27.5 The positioning of sprinklers of automatic water fire extinguishing system in rooms, corridors, means of egress, and other parts must be able to protect windows (on the outside or inside of the room), doorways of flats, offices, and other rooms whose doors open into corridors.

A.2.27.6 Minimum flow intensity of automatic extinguishing systems shall be 0,08 L/(s∙m2).

A.2.27.7 In case of sprinkler extinguishing system, minimum fire flow must be 10 L/s.

A.2.27.8 Vestibules of smokeproof stairwells must be fitted with D 65 FDCs for use by fire brigade (of the dry pipe system). These pipelines must be fitted with inlets on the first storey in order to allow high-pressure pump of fire engines to connect.

A.2.28 Electrical system

A.2.28.1 Technical equipment below must remain powered for at least 3 hours after a fire breaks out and by 2 independent sources:

– Fire service elevators;

– Equipment affiliated to fire protection system;

– Automatic fire alarm and evacuation guidance systems;

– Equipment affiliated to automatic fire extinguishing and water supply systems;

– Fire protection equipment serving technical equipment system;

– Equipment serving rescue – evacuation.

A.2.28.2 Electric cables from electrical substation and independent power sources to input distribution device in each fire compartment must be placed in separate channels (trays) with fire resistance capacity complaint with A.2.24 or must be fire resistant cables.

A.2.28.3 Input distribution device of each fire compartment must be fitted with breakers and protected by fire protection measures.

A.2.28.4 Distribution cabinets of storeys and electrical panels of flats require breakers. These cabinets must be able to prevent fire from spreading beyond the cabinets.

A.2.28.5 The filling of annular spaces in areas where cables and wires penetrate structural elements which require fire resistance must have minimum fire-resistance rating equal to fire-resistance rating of the structural elements that are penetrated by cables and wires.

A.2.28.6

A.2.28.7 Electric cables (wires) from input cabinets of the storey to rooms must be placed in trays or structural elements made from non-combustible materials.

A.2.28.8 Electric cables and wires from input cabinets to fire protection systems (electrical equipment of fire extinguishing system, fire alarms, smoke extraction, emergency lighting, and similar equipment) must be made from fire-resistant cables (mineral-insulated electrical wires and electrical cables or other electrical wires and cables with minimum fire-resistance rating of 120 minutes).

A.2.29 Ventilation and smoke protection system

A.2.29.1 Rooms with different occupancies in the same fire compartment must be served by separate heating, ventilation, air conditioning system.

A.2.29.2 Rooms where ventilation equipment is located must be placed in fire compartments that they serve. Ventilation equipment of systems that serve different rooms are allowed to be placed in the same room, except for the following cases:

– Equipment of air supply system that uses recirculated air and serves rooms with fire and explosion risk classes C1 through C3 must not be placed in the same space as equipment of system that serves rooms with other explosion risk classes;

– Equipment of air supply system that serves dwelling units must not be placed in the same space as equipment of air supply system that serves rooms dedicated to life services and equipment of air exhaust system;

– Equipment of air exhaust system (expels air with odors outside, from smoking rooms, bathrooms, and similar rooms) must not be placed in the same space as equipment of air supply system;

– Equipment of localized exhaust system for explosive compounds must not be placed in the same space as equipment of other systems.

A.2.29.3 Ventilation systems that serve different fire compartments must not use the same inlets. Horizontal distance between air inlets located on adjacent fire compartments must not be lower than 3 m.

A.2.29.4 Horizontal distance between inlets and outlets affiliated to the same air exhaust system and located vertically on the building exterior must not be lower than 10 m. If the horizontal clearance cannot be guaranteed, the vertical clearance must not be lower than 6 m.

A.2.29.5 Air pipes and collector pipes of every system in fire compartments that they serve shall comply with the following regulations:

– Be made from non-combustible materials and minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 15 as long as air pipes must be placed in a common shaft whose enclosing structures have minimum fire-resistance rating of REI 120 and fire dampers must be fitted in areas where the pipes penetrate the enclosing structure;

– Be made from non-combustible materials and fitted with fire dampers in all areas where the pipes penetrate walls, partitions, and floors which are required to be fire resistant;

– Air pipe segments situated outside of fire compartments that they serve, starting from fire protection assemblies on the exterior of the fire compartments, must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 180.

A.2.29.6 If air pipes and collector pipes of all systems serving different fire compartments are placed in the same channel or shaft, enclosing structures of the channel or shaft must have minimum fire-resistance rating of REI 180 while the pipes must:

– Have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 60 if the pipes are located in fire compartments that they serve and be fitted with fire dampers where they penetrate enclosing structures of the channel and shaft;

– Have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 60 if the pipes are located outside of fire compartments that they serve and be fitted with fire dampers where they penetrate fire-resistance-rated floors on the edge of fire compartments (the floor has fire-resistance rating of REI 180).

A.2.29.7 Air pipes required to be fire resistant must be made from non-combustible materials, have minimum thickness of 0,8 mm, and be fitted with apparatus for compensating for linear thermal expansion. The fitting of joints of air pipes must be done by non-combustible materials.

A.2.29.8 Fire dampers must be fitted with remote control and automatic control schemes. Intumescent fire dampers are not allowed. Fire-resistance rating of fire dampers must:

– Not be lower than EI 90 – if respective fire protection assemblies have fire-resistance rating of REI 120 or higher;

– Not be lower than EI 60 – if respective fire protection assemblies have fire-resistance rating of REI 60.

A.2.29.9 Smoke extraction system must fulfill the following requirements:

– Fire-resistance rating of ventilation fans must allow the fans to operate under calculated temperature of the airflow;

– Air ducts and channels must be made from non-combustible materials with minimum fire-resistance rating of:

EI 180 – for air ducts and channels located outside of fire compartments that they serve;

EI 120 – for vertical air ducts and channels located in fire compartments that they serve;

– Smoke dampers must be fitted with remote and automatic control schemes and have minimum fire-resistance rating of:

EI 60 – for parking spaces of motor vehicles and isolated corridors of enclosed parking garages;

EI 45 – for rooms with minimum occupant load of 50 people, according to Schedule G.9 (Appendix G) and for atriums;

EI 30 – for corridors, lobbies, and single-loaded corridors.

A.2.29.10 Exhaust fans for expelling combustion products must be positioned in separate rooms and enclosed by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions.

A.2.29.11 Shafts enclosing pipelines of air supply system for smoke control must have minimum fire-resistance rating equal to fire-resistance rating of floors that they penetrate. The required fire-resistance rating of air pipes of air supply system must not be lower than:

EI 60 – for storey-based air ducts of system that supplies air in fire protection vestibules and isolated corridors of enclosed parking garages;

EI 30 – for air ducts of system that supplies air in stairwells and elevator shafts, and fire protection vestibules above the ground.

A.2.29.12 Fire dampers of air supply system for smoke control must have minimum fire-resistance rating equal to the required fire-resistance rating of air ducts of this system.

A.2.29.13 The control of equipment and operation of smoke protection system must be done automatically (even fire detection system) and remotely (from control tables of standby employees and buttons located along means of egress of storeys or fire hose cabinets). In all fire drill scenarios, regular ventilating and air conditioning systems (that are not fitted with smoke control mode) must be shut down while smoke extraction and air supply for smoke control systems must be engaged.

A.2.29.14 Information pertaining to location and conditions of equipment and operation of smoke protection system must be monitored and distinguished at control stations.

A.2.29.15 Mechanisms and working equipment of smoke protection system must have operation reliability represented by minimum safety factor of 0,999.

A.2.30 Rubbish collection system

A.2.30.1 Rubbish chutes must be made from non-combustible materials.

A.2.30.2 Rubbish intake doors must be placed in separate rooms which are physically separated from other spaces by fire-resistance-rated partitions with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 120. Fire-resistance-rated doors fitted on these partitions must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 60, be equipped with door closers, and have their clearance sealed.

A.3 F1.3 apartment buildings with fire height ranging from exceeding 75 m to 150 m

A.3.1 Buildings with fire height ranging from 75 m to 100 m

A.3.11. Minimum fire resistance category shall be I, fire resistance requirements of building structures and components shall conform to A.2.24, except for cases under A.3.1.10 and A.3.1.14.

A.3.1.2 Buildings must be divided into fire compartments longitudinally where height of the bottommost fire compartment must not exceed 75 m and height of subsequent fire compartments must not exceed 50 m. Fire compartments must be physically separated by fire-resistance-rated floors with minimum fire-resistance-rating of REI 150 or by mechanical floors whose horizontal load bearing structures (floors and ceilings) must have minimum fire-resistance rating of REI 90.

A.3.1.3 The maximum allowable area of a storey in a fire compartment shall be determined in accordance with A.2.3.

A.3.1.4 Joints between fire-resistance-rated floors, fire protection assemblies and enclosing structures of buildings must be protected in order to prevent fire from spreading through fire protection assemblies. Prevention of flame spread on building exterior must conform to 4.32 and 4.33.

A.3.1.5 Each fire compartment along the building height must be protected by independent fire protection systems (water supply for firefighting, smoke ventilation, emergency lighting, fire alarm, automatic fire extinguishing). Fire compartments can share fire pump stations, water supply pump stations, smoke exhaust fans, and fire alarm control units.

A.3.1.6 Awnings made from non-combustible materials with minimum width of 1,0 m must be fitted above entrances to garages on the first storey in a manner that the distance from these awnings to the lower edge of upper windows must not be lower than 4,0 m.

A.3.1.7 The separation and permissible length of separated segment of indoor corridors must conform to A.2.14. The maximum travel distance from doors of flats to the nearest means of egress (either staircase or exit discharge) must conform to A.2.19.

A.3.1.8 Clear width of stringers and landings of N1 and N3 stairwells in residential section of buildings must not be lower than 1,20 m; clear width of stringers and landings of N2 stairwells must not be lower than 1,05 m while clear width between stringers must not be lower than 100 mm.

A.3.1.9 All smokeproof stairwells must have stringers leading to the roof via type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors.

A.3.1.10 Sections serving other occupancies of the buildings (including mechanical rooms, auxiliary rooms serving residential sections) must be physically separated from residential section by solid fire-resistance-rated walls with fire-resistance rating REI 150 and type 1 fire-resistance-rated floors and fitted with separate exit accesses.

A.3.1.11 Thermal insulation layer (if any) of exterior wall must be made from non-combustible materials. Thermal insulation layer made from Ch1 or Ch2 materials is allowed if it is protected from all sides by concrete or plaster with minimum thickness of 50 mm. The thickness of this concrete (plaster) layer on exterior walls where windows and doors are located must not be lower than 30 mm.

A.3.1.12 Fire-resistance-rated doors must be fitted on a case-by-case basis as follows:

  1. a) Other than cases under Points b) and c) below, minimum fire-resistance rating of doors must be EI 30 (EIW 30) if these doors are fitted in structural elements with fire-resistance rating of EI 60 (EIW 60); minimum fire-resistance rating of doors must be EI 60 (EIW 60) in remaining cases.
  2. b) Type 2 fire-resistance rated doors are required when: the doors leading from vestibules to smokeproof stairwells, elevators, and rubbish intake rooms.
  3. c) Hoistway doors leading into elevator lobbies must be smoketight doors.

A.3.1.13 Finishes of ceilings, walls, and floors on means of egress, elevator lobbies, common lobbies, and mechanical floors must be made from non-combustible materials.

A.3.1.14 Soundproofing layers of rooms, thermal insulation layers of equipment and service ducts must be made from non-combustible materials.

A.3.1.15 Primary pipelines along vertical axis of technical ducts (water drainage, rainwater, hot and cold water supply) must be made of non-combustible materials or placed in technical channels or trays which are made of non-combustible materials. Requirements of rubbish collection system shall conform to A.2.30.

A.3.1.16 Smoke protection of buildings, fire alarms, and automatic fire extinguishing system shall conform to additional regulations below:

  1. a) All non-residential rooms (garages, auxiliary rooms, mechanical rooms, public spaces, rubbish containers, and rooms with similar occupancies) and rubbish chutes must be equipped with sprinklers (other than electrical rooms, electronic rooms that require gaseous fire suppression system or equipment;
  2. b) Sprinklers connected to water supply pipelines via flow switches must be fitted above doors to flats;
  3. c) Automatic fire alarm system must indicate address of each flat. Flats, corridors, and elevator lobbies must be fitted with smoke detectors. Each flat must be fitted with public address system which notifies and provides evacuation guidance for all occupants in case of emergency;
  4. d) Automatic fire alarm, firefighting equipment and apparatus must be fitted in electrical and communication channels, shafts, and other technical ducts prone to fire risks;
  5. e) Electrical sources of fire protection systems such as: elevators carrying fire brigade and firefighting equipment; smoke protection system; automatic fire alarm, fire extinguishing system must be provided by separate electrical boxes or panels which are painted in different colors, travel in different paths towards distribution equipment of each fire compartment.

A.3.1.17 Fire protection requirements for electrical cables and wires of power sources which power fire prevention and firefighting system shall conform to A.2.28.

A.3.2 Buildings with fire height ranging from 100 m to 150 m

A.3.2.1 Buildings with fire height ranging from exceeding 100 m to 150 m must, in addition to requirements under A.3.1, must contain refuge floors and fire emergency holding areas which meet the following requirements:

  1. a) Each refuge floor must not be more than 20 storeys away from one another. The first refuge floors must not be positioned higher than the 21st Areas of a refuge floor where fire emergency holding areas are located must be physically separated from other areas by fire protection assemblies whose fire-resistance rating must not be lower than REI 150. Areas other than fire emergency holding areas can serve public occupancies. Flats must not be located on refuge floors in part or in whole;

NOTE: A part or the entire mechanical floor can serve as fire emergency holding areas if requirements under Points b), c), d), e), f).

  1. b) Fire emergency holding areas must have the required space per person of 0,3 m2/person and must have sufficient space for the largest number of occupants evacuating from all storeys between the storey where fire emergency holding areas are located and storey where the next fire emergency holding areas are located and the remaining upper storeys in case of the topmost refuge floors. Fire emergency holding areas must not serve mercantile occupancy; fire emergency holding areas can serve as playgrounds for children or sports grounds;

NOTE: The largest number of occupants evacuating from difference spaces of the buildings or building sections shall be determined in accordance with G.3, Appendix G. With respect to buildings and buildings section other than F1.3 buildings or F1.3 building sections, A.2.16 shall additionally apply.

  1. c) Fire emergency holding areas must receive natural ventilation via fixed wall openings located on 2 exterior walls (vent openings) which must meet the following requirements:

– Total area of vent openings must be equal to or greater than 25% of area of fire emergency holding areas;

– The minimum height of vent openings (from the bottom edge to the upper edge) must be 1,2 m;

– Vent openings of fire emergency holding areas must be at least 1,5 m horizontally and 3,0 m vertically away from other unprotected wall openings which are orthogonally adjacent to these vent openings. If vent openings serving fire emergency holding areas are not smaller than 50% of the area of fire emergency holding areas, the vertical distance can be lowered to 1,5 m;

  1. d) All equipment and tools located in fire emergency holding areas must be made of non-combustible materials;
  2. e) Fire emergency holding areas must have exit accesses that lead directly into smokeproof stairwells and exit accesses that lead into vestibules of fire service elevators. Means of egress that lead into fire emergency holding areas must cross a smoke protected lobby/fire service elevator lobby or a single-loaded corridor;
  3. f) Fire emergency holding areas must be equipped with fire protection equipment such as: standpipe outlets, automatic sprinkler extinguishing system, emergency lighting, phones for communicating with the outside, public address system that provides evacuation guidelines, and similar equipment;
  4. g) Signs that read “GIAN LÁNH NẠN/FIRE EMERGENCY HOLDING AREA” must be positioned on stair side and building side of exit access stairwells at a height of 1 500 mm from finish surface of landings or floors. Letter height must not be lower than 50 mm;

NOTE: In additional to Vietnamese and English, additional languages are allowed depending on the types of occupants.

  1. h) Area of fire emergency holding areas can be excluded from land use factor and total floor area.

A.4 Karaoke and discotheque service venues (F2.1)

A.4.1 Fire resistance category of karaoke and discotheque service venues must conform to this regulation and must not be lower than category IV.

A.4.2 Storeys of karaoke and discotheque service venues must have at least 2 exit accesses.

Each storey can have one exit access when all requirements below are met:

– In regard to buildings with fire height not exceeding 15 m, area of the storey in question must not exceed 300 m2. In regard to buildings with fire height from exceeding 15 m to 21 m, area of the storey in question must not exceed 200 m2.

– The entire building is protected by automatic fire extinguishing system;

– Occupant load of each storey does not exceed 20 people;

– At least one additional fire exit from storeys to open balconies or to control areas on open roof or to type 3 staircases is required.

NOTE: Open balcony or open rooftop means the balcony or rooftop is not enclosed and enclosing structures (if any) must facilitate evacuation and rescue for the fire brigade.

A.4.3 Exit accesses from each storey of karaoke and discotheque service venues must lead into stairwells via type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors. Means of egress on each storey must be protected by fire protection assemblies with fire-resistance ratings as follows:

  1. a) In case of buildings with fire resistance category I – non-combustible materials with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 30;
  2. b) In case of buildings with fire resistance category of II, III, or IV – non-combustible or mildly flammable (Ch1) materials with minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 15.

A.4.4 Additional eye-level exit signs are required along means of egress in accordance with TCVN 13456.

A.4.5 Floor finishes, decorations (including dropped ceiling tiles if any), tiles, and coverings in karaoke and discotheque service venues must have minimum fire risk level CV1.

A.4.6 Fire command centers (if any) must conform to 6.17.

A.4.7 Fire alarm, automatic extinguishing system, indoor firefighting equipment in karaoke and discotheque service venues must conform to TCVN 3890, TCVN 5738, TCVN 7336.

A.4.8 Fire alarm sirens and lights must be positioned in corridors, common lobbies, and rooms of karaoke and discotheque service venues. Electrical system of audio and visual systems must have fail-safe connection and be automatically shut down in case of activation of automatic fire alarm system and in case of manual shut down (button for manual shut down is located in fire command centers or in receptionist and appropriate signs are erected) in case of fire.

A.4.9 Karaoke and discotheque service venues must have open rooftop and elevated entry in accordance with 6.3.1 through 6.3.4 to allow fire brigade to make entry.

A.4.10 Advertising panels of karaoke and discotheque service venues must conform to QCVN 17:2018/BXD.

NOTE: The inspection, rectification, and assurance of fire safety in accordance with this Regulation in karaoke and discotheque service venues which are operated before the effective date hereof shall be carried out in accordance with specific instructions of competent authority.

 

APPENDIX B

(regulations)

CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS BASED ON FIRE-RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF MATERIALS

B.1 Classification of construction materials based on fire-related technical characteristics

B.1.1 Non-combustible materials and combustible materials

Construction materials shall be classified into: combustible materials and non-combustible materials according to combustibility test results below:

Non-combustible materials are those that are accompanied by the following elements throughout the test:

– Temperature increase of the oven does not exceed 50 oC;

– Mass of the sample does not reduce by more than 50 %;

– Duration of sustained flaming does not exceed 10 s.

Combustible materials are those that are not accompanied by any of the elements above.

NOTE: Test parameters shall be determined in accordance with TCVN 12695 (ISO 1182) or similar standards.

EXAMPLE: Materials classified as non-combustible materials are inorganic materials such as concrete, baked clays, ceramic, metal, masonry units, plaster, and similar materials.

B.1.2 Combustibility classes of materials

Schedule B.1 – Combustibility classes of materials

Combustibility class Parameters
Air temperature in exhaust pipe, T, oC Reduction to sample length, L, % Reduction to sample mass, m, % Duration of sustained flaming, s
Ch1 – mildly flammable ≤ 135 ≤ 65 ≤ 20 0
Ch2 – moderately flammable ≤ 235 ≤ 85 ≤ 50 ≤ 30
Ch3 – flammable ≤ 450 > 85 ≤ 50 ≤ 300
Ch4 – highly flammable > 450 > 85 > 50 > 300
NOTE 1: Test parameters shall be determined in accordance with applicable national standards or equivalent standards pertaining to combustibility test for construction materials.

NOTE 2: If tests are organized in accordance with TCVN 12695 (ISO 1182), materials that meet the following requirements are also classified as Ch1:

– Temperature increase of the oven does not exceed 50 oC;

– Mass of the sample does not reduce by more than 50 %;

– Duration of sustained flaming does not exceed 20 s.

B.1.3 Ignitability classes of materials

Schedule B.2 – Ignitability classes of materials

Ignitability classes Maximum surface heat flux, kW/m2
BC1 – barely ignitable ≥ 35
BC2 – moderately ignitable ≥ 20 and < 35
BC3 – ignitable < 20
NOTE: Maximum surface heat flux shall be determined in accordance with ISO 5657 or equivalent standards.

B.1.4 Flame spread classes of materials

Schedule B.3 – Flame spread classes of materials

Flame spread classes Maximum surface heat flux, kW/m2
LT1 – no spread ≥ 11
LT2 – limited spread ≥ 8 and < 11
LT3 – moderate spread ≥ 5 and < 8
LT4 – rapid spread < 5
NOTE: Test parameters shall be determined in accordance with ISO 5658-2, ISO 9239 or equivalent standards

B.1.5 Smoke production classes of materials

Schedule B.4 – Smoke production classes of materials

Smoke production classes Smoke production rate, m2/kg
SK1 – low smoke production ≤ 50
SK2 – moderate smoke production > 50 and ≤ 500
SK3 – high smoke production > 500
NOTE: Smoke production rate of materials shall be determined in accordance with ISO 5660-2 or equivalent standards.

B.1.6 Toxic potency classes of materials

Schedule B.5 – Toxic potency classes of materials

Toxic potency classes HCL50, g/m3, corresponding to duration, min, of exposure
5 15 30 60
DT1 – low toxic potency > 210 > 150 > 120 > 90
DT2 – moderate toxic potency > 70 and ≤ 210 > 50 and ≤ 150 > 40 and ≤ 120 > 30 and ≤ 90
DT3 – high toxic potency > 25 and ≤ 70 > 17 and ≤ 50 > 13 and ≤ 40 > 10 and ≤ 30
DT4 – very high toxic potency ≤ 25 ≤ 17 ≤ 13 ≤ 10
NOTE: Test parameters and calculation of HCL50 shall comply with ISO 13344 or equivalent standards.

B.1.7 Fire risk levels

Schedule B.6 – Fire risk levels of materials

Fire-related technical characteristics Fire risk levels of materials
CV0 CV1 CV2 CV3 CV4 CV5
1. Combustibility Non-combustible Ch1 Ch1 Ch2 Ch3 Ch4
2. Ignitability BC1 BC2 BC2 BC2 BC3
3. Smoke production SK2 SK2 SK3 SK3 SK3
4. Toxic potency of combustion products DT2 DT2 DT2 DT3 DT4
5. Flame spread LT1 LT1 LT2 LT2 LT4
NOTE: List of fire risk classification of construction materials for the purpose of determining fire risk classes from CV0 to CV5 of construction materials is specified under Schedule B.7.

Schedule B.7 – List of required fire risk classification depending on use of construction materials

Construction materials Required fire risk classification depending on use of construction materials
Combustibility classification Flame spread classification Ignitability classification Smoke production classification Toxic potency classification
1. Finish materials of walls and ceilings, including coats of pain, glaze, varnish 1) + + + +
2. Floorings, including carpets + + + +
3. Roof tiles + + +
4. Anti-absorbent and air sealing materials thicker than 0,2 mm + +
5. Thermal insulation materials + + + +
1) Fire risk classification is not required in regard to coatings up to 0,3 mm thick of walls, ceilings, or walls made from non-combustible materials

NOTE 1: A “+” symbol means this classification is required

NOTE 2: A “-” symbol means this classification is not required

NOTE 3: If anti-absorbent materials are used as roof tiles, section 3 shall prevail.

B.2 Fire safety requirements for materials

Schedule B.8 – Range of application of finishes, decorations, tiles, and floorings on means of egress

Fire risk category by function of buildings, constructions, and fire compartments Number of storeys and height of building Fire risk levels of materials
used on walls and ceilings (including dropped ceilings if any) used as floorings
Entrance halls, stairwells, elevator lobbies Common corridors, waiting halls Entrance halls, stairwells, elevator lobbies Common corridors, waiting halls
F1.2; F1.3; F2.3; F2.4; F3.1; F3.2; F3.6; F4.2; F4.3; F4.4; F5.1; F5.2, F5.3 ≤ 9 storeys or ≤ 28 m CV2 CV3 CV3 CV4
> 9 storeys and ≤ 17 storeys; or > 28 m and ≤ 50 m CV1 CV2 CV2 CV3
17 storeys or ≤ 50 m CV0 CV1 CV1 CV2
F1.1; F2.1; F2.2; F3.3; F3.4; F3.5; F4.1 Regardless of number of storeys or height CV0 CV1 CV1 CV2

Schedule B.9 – Range of application of finishes, decorations, tiles, and floorings in common rooms, other than sports grounds and floors of dancing rooms

Fire risk category by function of buildings Room occupant load, people Fire risk levels of materials
used on walls and ceilings (including dropped ceilings if any) used as floorings
F1.2;

F2.3; F2.4;

F31; F3.2; F3.6;

F4.2; F4.3; F4.4;

F5.1

> 800 CV0 CV2
> 300 and ≤ 800 CV1 CV2
> 50 and ≤ 300 CV2 CV3
≤ 50 CV3 CV4
F1.1;

F2.1; F2.2;

F3.3; F3.4; F3.5;

F4.1

> 300 CV0 CV2
> 15 and ≤ 300 CV1 CV2
≤ 15 CV3 CV4

 

APPENDIX C

(regulations)

FIRE AND EXPLOSION RISK CLASSES OF BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTIONS, AND ROOMS WITH MANUFACTURING AND STORAGE OCCUPANCIES

C.1 Fire and explosion risk classes of rooms

Schedule C.1 – Fire and explosion risk classes of room

Fire and explosion risk class of room Characteristics of substances and materials present (or created) in the room
A

High fire and explosion risk

– Combustible gas, ignitable liquid whose flashpoint is 28 oC or lower, in sufficient amount to create explosive gas – vapour mixture, which upon combustion will create a gauge pressure of more than 5 kPa in the room.

– Substances and materials that explode or combust upon contact with water, oxygen or one another, in sufficient amount to create an explosion whose gauge pressure in the room exceeds 5 kPa.

B

Fire and explosion risk

Combustible dust or fabric materials, ignitable liquid, with flashpoint exceeding 28 oC, combustible liquid, in sufficient amount to create explosive gas – dust or gas – vapour, which when ignited will create a gauge pressure of exceeding 5 kPa in the room.
C1 through C4

Fire risk

– Combustible or barely combustible liquid, combustible and barely combustible substances and materials in solid form (including dust and fabric), substances and materials that combust upon contact with water, oxygen, or one another; rooms where these substances and materials are located are not placed in class A or class B.

– These rooms are then further classified into classes C1 through C4 depending on fire loads of substances contained therein:

C1 – Fire load exceeds 2 200 MJ/m2;

C2 – Fire load ranges from 1 401 MJ/m2 to 2 200 MJ/m2;

C3 – Fire load ranges from 181 MJ/m2 to 1 400 MJ/m2;

C4 – Fire load ranges from 1 MJ/m2 to 180 MJ/m2.

D

Moderate fire risk

Non-combustible substances and materials in hot, incandescent, or molten state where work process is accompanied by heat radiation, sparks, and flame; combustible solid, liquid, and gases used as fuel.
E

Low fire risk

Non-combustible substances and materials in a cold state.

C.2 Fire and explosion risk classes of buildings and constructions

C.2.1 Class A

C.2.1.1 Buildings and constructions shall be placed in class A if area of all class A rooms in these buildings and constructions exceed 5% of total area of rooms in the buildings or constructions and exceed 200 m2.

C.2.1.2 Buildings and constructions shall not be placed in class A if area of all class A rooms in these buildings and constructions does not exceed 25% of total area of rooms of the buildings and constructions (without exceeding 1 000 m2) and all class A rooms are equipped with automatic extinguishing system.

C.2.2 Class B

C.2.2.1 Buildings and constructions shall be placed in class B if requirements below are simultaneously met:

– The buildings and constructions are not placed in class A;

– Area of all class A and B rooms exceeds 5% of total area of rooms in the buildings and constructions or exceed 200 m2.

C.2.2.2 Buildings and constructions shall not be placed in class B if area of all class A and class B rooms in these buildings and constructions does not exceed 25% of total area of rooms of the buildings and constructions (without exceeding 1 000 m2) and all of these rooms are equipped with automatic extinguishing system.

C.2.3 Class C

C.2.3.1 Buildings and constructions shall be placed in class C if requirements below are simultaneously met:

The buildings and constructions are not placed in class A or class B;

Area of all class A, class B, class C1, class C2, and class C3 rooms exceeds 5 % (or 10 % if there are no class A and class B rooms in these buildings and constructions) of total area of rooms of the buildings and constructions.

C.2.3.2 Buildings and constructions shall not be placed in class C if area of all class A, class B, class C1, class C2, and class C3 rooms in these buildings and constructions does not exceed 25% of total area of rooms of the buildings and constructions (without exceeding 3 500 m2) and all of these rooms are equipped with automatic extinguishing system.

C.2.4 Class D

C.2.4.1 Buildings and constructions shall be placed in class D if requirements below are simultaneously met:

– The buildings and constructions are not placed under class A, class B, or class C;

– Area of all class A, class B, class C1, class C2, class C3, and class D rooms does exceeds 5% total area of rooms in the buildings and constructions.

C.2.4.2 Buildings and constructions shall not be placed in class D if area of all class A, class B, class C1, class C2, class C3, and class D rooms in these buildings and constructions does not exceed 25% of total area of rooms of the buildings and constructions (without exceeding 5 000 m2) and all of these rooms are equipped with automatic extinguishing system.

C.2.5 Class E

Buildings and constructions shall be placed in class E if they are not placed in class A, class B, class C, or class D.

C.3 Methods for identifying classification criteria

C.3.1 Methods for identifying classification criteria for fire and explosion risk classes of buildings, constructions, and rooms are prescribed in standards.

C.3.2 Several buildings and rooms associated to factories, warehouses, and production units are classified as follows:

C.3.2.1 Class A

– Factories where potassium and sodium are produced and/or used;

– Factories where synthetic fibers and synthetic rubber are made;

– Factories where gasoline and oil are produced;

– Factories where gas hydrodistillation and separation are conducted;

– Factories where synthetic liquid fuel is produced, organic water-soluble liquid whose flashpoint is 28 oC or lower is retrieved and distilled;

– Storage of flammable gas container and gasoline;

Storage rooms of alkaline and lead-acid batteries of power plants;

Pump stations of liquid with flashpoint of 28 oC or lower.

C.3.2.2 Class B

– Factories where coal dust and sawdust are produced and transported, washing stations of barrels of mazut oil and other liquid whose flashpoint ranges from 28 oC to 61 oC;

– Stations for milling and grinding solid matters, factories where synthetic rubber is produced, factories where sugar is produced, mazut oil storage of power plants, pump stations of liquid whose flashpoint ranges from 28 oC to 61 oC.

C.3.2.3 Class C

– Wood cutting stations, stations where wooden handicrafts are produced;

– Textile and apparel factories;

– Paper mills with dry pulping process;

– Factories for preparing cotton, fute, and other fabrics.

– Filtering and drying stations in seed milling factories and storage;

– Factories where oil and grease regeneration, asphalt distillation take place, storage of combustible materials and oil and grease;

– Electrical distribution equipment with circuit breaker and electrical equipment with more than 60 kg of grease and oil per equipment unit;

– Conveyor belts for transporting fossil coal, peat;

– Enclosed storage of coal, assorted commodities, pump stations of liquid with flashpoint above 61 oC.

C.3.2.4 Class D

– Metal casting and metallurgy factories, forging and welding factories;

– Locomotive repair stations;

– Metal hot-rolling, hot-working factories;

– Building sections where internal combustion engines are located;

– High-voltage laboratories;

– Main buildings of power plants (furnace rooms, turbine rooms, and similar);

– Boiler stations.

C.3.2.5 Class E

– Metal cold-working factories (except for magnesium alloys);

– Ore yard;

– Caustic soda manufacturing factories (except for furnace sections);

– Ventilation fan stations, compressor stations of air and non-combustible gases;

– Acid regeneration factories;

– Electric vehicle and electric locomotive repair stations;

– Factories for crushing, shaping, and cold-rolling asbestos minerals, salt, and other non-combustible ingredients;

– Factories associated with textile and papermaking industry with wet pulping process;

– Factories where food, fish, meat, dairy processing takes place;

– Electrical control stations;

– Water purification plants (sedimentation, filtration, bleaching, and constructions with similar occupancies);

– Water pump and suction stations of power plants;

– Components containing carbonic acid and chloride, cooling towers, pump stations of non-combustible liquid.

 

APPENDIX D

(regulations)

SMOKE PROTECTION

D.1 General requirements

D.1.1 Smoke protection for buildings and constructions serve to prevent and/or minimize the passage of smoke and combustion products (hereinafter collectively referred to as “smoke”) in the building in order to:

– Ensure safety for people evacuating and protect property in case of fire;

– Create all necessary conditions to allow fire brigade to rescue people, discover and zone fire in the building.

D.1.2 Smoke protection solutions for buildings and construction include:

– Compartmentalization and isolation of smoke into smoke compartments;

– Natural ventilation in case of fire;

– Smoke ventilation: including natural or mechanical smoke extraction and air supply system for smoke control;

– Creation of positive pressure in areas where protection from smoke is required.

The aforementioned solutions can be adopted one at a time or multiple at the same time as long as the base of smoke layer must not be lower than 2 m above the highest floor surface on which people can walk on in rooms or corridors protected by smoke protection solutions.

D.1.3 Equipment associated to smoke extraction system and air supply system for smoke control, regardless of operating mechanism (either natural or mechanical), must be activated automatically (by activation of automatic fire alarm or automatic extinguishing equipment) and remotely (from guard stations of the building, or fire command centers or buttons located along means of egress or in fire alarm control panels. These buttons must be positioned in a way that allows easy activation by humans).

Equipment associated with smoke protection system (including pipelines) must be installed in accordance with manufacturers’ regulations, inspected and maintained appropriately on a regular basis. Auxiliary attachments serving installation or hanging of equipment must be able to maintain operation of the equipment in accordance with manufacturers’ regulations throughout operation.

D.1.4 When smoke extraction system is activated in case of fire, general ventilating, air conditioning systems and ventilating, air conditioning systems serving technology requirements (if any) of the building (except for systems that ensure safety of technology) must be shut down; all normally open fire dampers must also be closed. All ventilating, air conditioning systems can be shut down on a local or full scale depending on specific design as long as smoke and flame cannot spread via general ventilating, air conditioning systems.

D.1.5 Smoke ventilation system must be independent for each fire compartment, except:

– Air supply systems that create positive pressure to protect stairwells and elevator shafts connecting different fire compartments;

– Smoke extraction systems protecting atriums and atrium corridors that are not physically separated into fire compartments.

D.1.6 Make-up air system (which supplies air from the outside to make up for the extracted smoke) shall only be allowed when used with smoke extraction system. Make-up air system must not be installed without respective smoke extraction system. In all cases, the effect of differences in pressure on emergency doors must allow a normal person to open the doors with ease.

Smoke protection system cannot be shared between rooms with different fire risk categories by functions.

D.1.7 Requirements under Appendix D can be changed on the basis of technical evaluation pertaining to smoke protection systems appropriate to applied standards.

D.1.8 In regard to rooms with special occupancies or specific technology requirements (such as cleanrooms, cold storage), smoke protection can comply with applied standard documents. In all cases, safety for occupants’ evacuation and fire brigade’s access must be guaranteed.

NOTE: The definition and classification of cleanrooms shall conform to ISO 14644 or equivalent standards.

D.2 Smoke extraction must be done from the following areas:

  1. a) From corridors (other than single-loaded corridors) and lobbies of houses, public structures, administrative – auxiliary buildings (in industrial facilities) and multipurpose buildings with a fire height exceeding 28 m;
  2. b) From corridors and pedestrian tunnels of basements, semi-basements of houses, public buildings, administrative – auxiliary buildings (in industrial facilities), manufacturing facilities, and multipurpose buildings if these corridors and pedestrian tunnels connect to regularly attended rooms;
  3. c) From corridors with a length exceeding 15 m and without natural ventilation in case of fire in the following two-storey buildings or higher:

– Class A, class B, class C manufacturing facilities and warehouses;

– Public buildings, including administrative – auxiliary buildings in industrial facilities;

– Multipurpose buildings;

  1. d) From common corridors (other than single-loaded corridors) and common lobbies of buildings with smokeproof stairwells;
  2. e) From atriums and mercantile corridors in atriums (hereinafter collectively referred to as “atriums”);
  3. f) From regularly attended rooms, rooms for manufacturing or storage occupancy, including storage of books, documents, printed materials, exhibits, restoration room of museums (regardless of whether the rooms are regularly attended or not in case of storage units utilizing racks), if these rooms are placed under class A, class B, class C1 through C3 in buildings with fire resistance category I through IV, or class C4, class D, class E in buildings with fire resistance category IV;
  4. g) From the following rooms that connect to smokeproof stairwells or rooms that lack natural ventilation in case of fire:

– Rooms that are 50 m2 in area or larger, regularly or irregularly used for assembly occupancy (more than 1 person per 1 m2 of floor area, not including space occupied by equipment and furniture);

– Mercantile and display sections;

– Reading and book storage rooms of libraries, exhibits, museums that are 50 m2 in area or larger, regularly attended, or where combustible substances and materials are stored or used;

– Changing rooms, locker rooms that are 200 m2 in area or larger;

  1. h) Enclosed, underground, or aboveground parking garages built as detached parking garages or as parts of buildings with other occupancies and separated ramps of these garages.

Smoke can be extracted to adjacent corridors from rooms that are up to 200 m2 in area with fire risk class C1, C2, or C3 or where combustible substances and materials are stored or used.

In regard to mercantile rooms and offices that are not larger than 800 m2, if travel distance from the furthest point of the rooms to the nearest exit accesses does not exceed 25 m, smoke can be extracted to adjacent areas that are corridors, lobbies, atriums and atrium corridors.

Dead-end corridors must not be physically separated by partitions with doors into segments shorter than 15 m in length.

NOTE 1: Areas that lack natural ventilation in case of fire are those that lack openings on exterior structures (exterior walls) or have openings without sufficient area to extract combustion products.

NOTE 2: In order to facilitate natural ventilation in case of fire in corridors, open windows or openings must be located on exterior walls in a manner that meets the following requirements:

– The upper edge of the openings must not be lower than 2,5 m from floor surface; the lower edge of the openings must not be higher than 1,5 m from floor surface;

– Total clear width of openings must not be lower than 1,6 m for every 30 m in length of the corridors;

– Openings must be opened by one hand with ease when the person is standing on the floor.

NOTE 3: In order to facilitate natural ventilation in case of fire for rooms, 6 windows or openings compliant with NOTE 2 are required with a minimum width of 0,24 m for every 1 m of exterior wall length. If exterior wall only adjoins the room on one side, the distance from this exterior wall to the inner wall must not exceed 20 m. If openings are located on 2 opposing exterior structures, the distance between these structures must not be greater than 40 m and in this case, length of exterior wall must not be greater than 1/3 of total length of inner separating walls.

D.3 Requirements under D.2 are not compulsory for:

  1. a) Rooms that are up to 200 m2 in area, equipped with automatic foam or water extinguishing system (other rooms with fire risk class A or class B, rooms that connect to N2 and N3 smokeproof stairwells, and enclosed parking garages with traditional parking (drivers must park their own vehicles));
  2. b) Rooms must be equipped with automatic foam or water or aerosol extinguishing system (other than enclosed parking garages with traditional parking);
  3. c) Corridors and lobbies where all rooms that lead into these corridors and lobbies have been designed to extract smoke directly;
  4. d) Sub-sections of rooms that are up to 50 m2 in area and situated in the main rooms which have been designed to extract smoke;
  5. e) Corridors (other than corridors mentioned under a) and b) of D.2) that lack natural ventilation in case of fire if rooms that lead to these corridors via fire-resistance-rated and smoke-protected doors are not regularly attended;
  6. f) Rooms with public occupancies located on the first storey in categories F1.2 and F1.3, physically separated from dwelling units and fitted with exit discharges if the maximum travel distance from the furthest point in these rooms to the exit discharges does not exceed 25 m and these rooms are not larger than 800 m2.

D.4 Smoke extraction rate must be determined via calculation for:

  1. a) Every 60 m in length or less – from corridors under a), b), c), and d) of D.2;
  2. b) Every smoke compartment not larger than 3 000 m2 – from rooms under e), f), g), and h) of D.2.

D.5 Smoke extraction systems serving corridors must be separate from smoke extraction systems serving rooms.

Smoke extraction systems can be shared between corridors of rooms under f) of D.3 and corridors of rooms on upper storeys if all these rooms are contained within a fire compartment.

D.6 Smoke inlets of smoke ducts for the purpose of extracting smoke from corridors must be positioned below the ceiling of corridors and not lower than head jamb (upper edge of doorways) of exit accesses. Smoke inlets are allowed on branching pipes leading to smoke ducts. A smoke inlet is required for:

– Up to 45 m in length of straight corridor;

– Up to 30 m in length of turning corridors;

– Up to 20 m in length of loop corridors.

Corridor length shall equal total length of adjacent corridor segments that resemble a rectangular or are close to a rectangular.

D.7 When extracting smoke from rooms larger than 3 000 m2, the rooms must be separated (either by enclosure (using smoke barriers) or presumption) into smoke compartments no larger than 3 000 m2 and the possibility of fire in any of the compartments must be taken into account. Each smoke inlet only serves an area up to 1 000 m2.

If rooms are physically separated into smoke compartments by smoke barriers (smoke partitions), it is permissible to activate only the smoke extraction system where the fire is located. If the separation of rooms into smoke compartments relies on presumption, respective calculation basis is required and all smoke extraction systems in all smoke compartments must be designed to activate simultaneously.

NOTE: Smoke partitions are remotely and automatically operated rollers or a fixed structure made from smoke protected materials with minimum combustibility of Ch1 on top of non-combustible surface (mesh, fabric, and other forms) and fastened to the ceiling or openings on the wall. In their deployed state, the lower edge of the partitions must not be higher than the base of the smoke layer; the partitions must be able to stop the passage of smoke and separate the rooms into smoke compartments.

D.8 In order to directly extract smoke from rooms and corridors of single-storey buildings, mechanical smoke extraction system or natural smoke extraction system (which utilizes smoke inlets and smoke dampers and extracts via smoke outlets or open skylights that does not allow air intake) is allowed.

NOTE 1: Mechanical smoke extraction system means a smoke extraction system where extraction force is created and sustained by fans.

NOTE 2: Natural smoke ventilation system means a smoke extraction system where smoke extracts via openings on exterior structures of the building in accordance with scientific laws.

Mechanical smoke extraction systems are required in multistorey buildings. Natural smoke ventilation systems are allowed on the topmost storey of multistorey buildings where smoke is extracted via smoke dampers, smoke outlets, open skylights, and open hatches which do not allow air intake.

In regard to single-storey buildings and the topmost storey of multistorey buildings, natural ventilation is allowed in case of fire instead of smoke extraction system if requirements below are met:

– Smoke extraction is calculated in accordance with applied standards where the least favorable conditions pertaining to smoke extraction must be taken into account (outdoor temperature, outdoor wind speed, location of the fire, location, how open the openings are, and other factors). For the purpose of calculation, the base of the smoke layer must not be less than 2 m above the highest traversable floor surface in the corridor or room in question.

– Windows and skylights included in smoke extraction calculation must remain open at all time or be able to open automatically in case of fire and must allow remote control by humans. Clear dimension of these windows and skylights in open conditions must fit calculation.

D.9 Smoke extraction system must meet the following requirements:

  1. a) The positioning of ventilation fans (including auxiliary equipment thereof to connect with pipes) with appropriate fire-resistance rating (for example: 0,5 hours at 200 oC; 0,5 hours at 300 oC; 1 hour at 300 oC; 1 hour at 400 oC; 1 hour at 600 oC; 1,5 hour at 600 oC, etc.) must rely on calculated temperature of the involved airflow and class of protected rooms;
  2. b) If ducts and pipes are subject to fire-resistance rating requirements, they must be made from non-combustible materials (including thermal insulation and fire-resistant coatings of pipes) and have class B airtightness (airtightness shall conform to EN 15727 or equivalent standards) with minimum fire-resistance rating of:

– EI 120 – for pipes and smoke ducts situated outside of fire compartment that they protect; in this case, normally open fire dampers are not allowed in sections where these pipes and smoke ducts penetrate fire-resistance-rated walls and floors of the fire compartment;

– EI 60 – for pipes and smoke ducts situated within fire compartment that they protect and extracting smoke from enclosed parking garages;

– EI 45 – for vertical pipes and smoke ducts within fire compartment that they protect and extracting smoke in the area;

– EI 30 – for other cases within fire compartment that they serve.

NOTE 1: Fire-resistance rating is not required for pipes contained in trays or mechanical shafts which are enclosed by fire protection assemblies with equal fire-resistance rating as per the law

NOTE 2: Normally open fire dampers are those that will close in case of fire

  1. c) Normally closed fire dampers must have minimum fire-resistance rating of:

EI 60 – for enclosed parking garages;

EI 45 – for smoke extraction from protected rooms;

EI 30 – for corridors and lobbies when dampers are fitted on branching pipes of smoke inlet shafts;

EI 30 – for corridors and lobbies when dampers are fitted on inlets of smoke inlet shafts;

  1. d) Smoke and combustion products must be extracted in the following manners:

– Through the roof: maintain at least 5 m of clearance from discharge locations to inlets of air supply system for smoke control. Height of smoke discharge pipes must be at least 2 m if the roof is made from non-combustible materials. This height can be lowered if roof section within a 2 m radius of smoke discharge location is protected by non-combustible materials or if smoke exhaust fans are installed;

– Through smoke flaps, taking into account outdoor wind speed;

– Through clear opening and discharge shafts located on the exterior wall where no doorways are installed or at least 5 m away from any doorway vertically and horizontally and more than 2 m away from ground surface. Clear distance to doorways can be reduced if smoke exhaust velocity is not lower than 20 m/s;

– Through stand-alone smoke exhaust shafts located on ground level and at least 15 m away from an exterior wall with windows (this minimum clearance can be ignored if windows on exterior wall are smoke-proof windows, windows that are always closed or automatically closed in case of fire), or from inlets of ventilation system of adjacent buildings or air supply system for smoke control of the building in question. This requirement can be substituted by other smoke exhaust solutions as per permissible standard documents.

Smoke extraction via smoke inlet pipes from basements and semi-basements is allowed through ventilated compartments. In this case, smoke outlets must be at least 6 m above the floor of ventilated compartments in the first basement (at least 3 m vertically and 1 m horizontally away from structure of a building) or, for wet-type extractors, at least 3 m above the floor. Smoke dampers are not allowed on these pipes.

Smoke exhaust fans must be positioned in separate rooms whose enclosing structures have minimum fire-resistance rating equal to the required fire-resistance rating of smoke ducts penetrating these enclosing structures, or positioned in rooms which they protect.

Smoke exhaust fans can be placed on the roof or on the building exterior and protected by enclosing structures to prevent unauthorized access. Smoke exhaust fans are allowed on exterior walls if requirements under d) section of D.9 are met.

D.10 In case of fire, air supply system for smoke control must supply outside air to the following areas:

  1. a) Elevator shafts (if exits of elevator shafts lack fire protection vestibules protected by air supply system for smoke control) in buildings with smokeproof stairwells;
  2. b) Vestibules of fire service elevator shafts;
  3. c) N2 smokeproof stairwells;
  4. d) Fire protection vestibules on the storey on fire of N3 smokeproof stairwells;
  5. e) Fire protection vestibules from exits of elevators to parking spaces of underground parking garages;
  6. f) Fire protection vestibules in indoor staircases, leading from basements or semi-basements where combustible materials and substances are used or stored to rooms on the first storey or corridors that do not receive natural ventilation. Air supply for vestibules of factories where metallurgy, casting, rolling, and other heat treatments take place can be provided by ventilated compartments of the building;
  7. g) Fire protection vestibules on entrances to atriums and mercantile sections, from elevation of basements and semi-basements;
  8. h) Vestibules (if the regulation requires vestibules in N2 stairwells) of the storey with fire of N2 stairwells in apartment buildings with a fire height above 75 m; multipurpose buildings with a fire height above 28 m, and public structures with a fire height above 50 m;
  9. i) Lower sections of rooms and corridors protected by smoke extraction systems in order to make up for the extracted smoke volume;

NOTE: Lower sections of rooms or corridors are sections that are situated below the smoke layer in case of fire and protected by smoke extraction system and air supply system for smoke control.

  1. j) Fire protection vestibules, vestibules separating underground or above-ground enclosed parking garages from rooms with other occupancies;
  2. k) Fire protection vestibules, vestibules separating motor vehicle holding spaces from enclosed ramps of underground parking garages;
  3. l) Fire protection vestibules of entrances to entrance halls from N2 stairwells which are connected to upper storeys of the building;
  4. m) Fire protection vestibules (elevator lobbies) from elevator exits to semi-basements and basements of the building;
  5. n) Rooms located in control areas (if any) above the storey with fire.

Air supply for the purpose of maintaining positive pressure is allowed in common corridors of rooms from which smoke is extracted and in corridors connected to recreational areas, waiting lounges, other corridors, corridors, and atriums protected by smoke extraction system.

In fire protection vestibules (elevator lobbies) on exits from elevators to basements of the building, air supply from elevator shafts via normally closed fire dampers is prohibited if home landings of these elevators are on the first storey of the building and elevator shafts are protected by air supply system for smoke control where provided air does not extend lower than the home landings.

When situating control areas in elevator lobbies, air supply into these lobbies is prohibited if air is provided through normally closed fire dampers from adjacent elevator shafts.

D.11 Supply rate of air supply system for smoke control must be calculated so as to maintain gauge pressure between 20 Pa to 50 Pa in the following areas:

  1. a) In elevator shafts – when all doors along elevator shafts are closed, other than doors on the home landings;
  2. b) In N2 stairwells – the greater supply rate shall prevail in the following cases:

– On the storey with fire: When doors leading from corridors and lobbies to means of egress lead to stairwells are all open, or when doors leading directly from rooms to stairwells are all open;

– Discharge doors are open while other doors leading from corridors and lobbies on all other storeys are closed;

  1. c) In fire protection vestibules on the storey with fire (when all doors are closed).

Rate of air supplied into fire protection vestibules leading to N2 or N3 stairwells, type 2 stairwells, atriums from basements and semi-basements, and before elevator lobbies of underground parking garages must be calculated so as to maintain a minimum wind velocity of 1,3 m/s passing through open doorway taking into account simultaneous operation of smoke extraction system.

Value of positive pressure shall be determined by comparing with pressure of adjacent rooms.

D.12 When calculating parameters of air supply system for smoke control, the following requirements must be complied with:

  1. a) Gauge pressure is not lower than 20 Pa and not greater than 50 Pa in:

– N2 stairwells;

– Fire protection vestibules leading into N2 or N3 stairwells from all storeys;

– Fire protection vestibules leading to atriums from basements and semi-basements;

– Fire protection vestibules separating motor vehicle parking spaces from ramps of underground parking garages;

– Elevator lobbies in basements and semi-basements;

– Common corridors of rooms from which smoke is extracted directly;

– Rooms in control areas (if any);

– Elevator shafts.

  1. b) If double doors are installed, use area of the larger leaf. This area must not be lower than the clear area necessary for evacuation. In other cases, calculate using total clear area of both leaves;
  2. c) Elevator cabins on the home landings;
  3. d) Gauge pressure applied on closed doors of exit accesses must not exceed 50 Pa when under simultaneous effect of smoke extraction system and air supply system for smoke extraction.

D.13 Air supply system for smoke control must meet the requirements below:

  1. a) Propulsion fans are allowed in:

– Rooms where no other fans are installed, have fire-resistance rating of enclosing structures not lower than the required fire-resistance rating of structures intersecting the pipelines;

– Within a fire compartment: Rooms where air supply system of general ventilation system is installed if design standard requirements are met or directly in stairwells, corridors, and fire protection vestibules;

– On the roof and building exterior, accompanied by enclosing structures to prevent unauthorized access.

  1. b) All ducts and pipelines must be made from non-combustible materials (including thermal insulation and fire resistant coatings), have class B airtightness, and minimum fire-resistance rating:

– EI 120 – for air collector wells and air supply ducts outside of protected fire compartment;

– EI 120 – for ducts of air supply system protecting vestibules of fire service elevator shafts;

– EI 60 – for ducts supplying air into fire protection vestibules leading into N2 or N3 stairwells from all storeys, and into spaces of enclosed parking garages;

– EI 30 – for air collector wells and air supply ducts outside of protected fire compartment.

NOTE 1: Fire-resistance rating is not required for pipes contained in trays or mechanical shafts which are enclosed by fire protection assemblies with equal fire-resistance rating as per the law

  1. c) Exterior air inlets must be at least 5 m away from smoke outlets of smoke extraction system;
  2. d) Normally closed fire dampers in ducts supplying air into fire protection vestibules with minimum fire-resistance rating of:

– EI 120 – for systems mentioned under b) of D.10;

– EI 60 – for systems under d), e), h), j), k), and l) of D.10;

– EI 30 – for systems under f), g), and i) of D.10, as well as m) of D.10 taking into account b) of D.10.

NOTE: Fire-resistance rating is not required for normally closed fire dampers in air supply pipelines in technical ducts or shafts enclosed by fire protection assemblies with matching fire-resistance rating as per the law.

  1. e) Fire dampers are not required for systems that only serve one fire protection vestibule. Non-insulating butterfly valves are not allowed in normally closed fire dampers in ducts supplying air into fire protection vestibules;
  2. f) Minimum clearance between smoke inlets of smoke extraction system and air outlet of air supply system for smoke control mentioned under i) of D.10 must not be lower than 1,5 vertically.

D.14 Requirements for premise – spatial arrangement and structural solutions

D.14.1 Enclosing structures of rooms where general ventilation equipment is located which is contained in fire compartment protected by the ventilation equipment must not be lower than EI 45.

Enclosing structures of rooms where smoke ventilation equipment is located – comply with D.9 and a) of D.13.

Doors leading to rooms above must be type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors (other rooms where class E general ventilation equipment is located).

D.14.2 Enclosing structures of rooms where general ventilation equipment and smoke ventilation equipment are located which are outside of fire compartment protected by these equipment must have minimum fire-resistance rating of EI 150. Doors leading to rooms above must be type 1 fire-resistance-rated doors.

D.14.3 Elevator doors in buildings that are not protected by smoke extraction system are not allowed to be opened in advance on any storey.

D.14.4 Exits from elevators to underground parking garages must be accompanied by fire protection vestibules protected by air supply system for smoke control.

D.14.5 In order to make up for the smoke volume extracted by smoke extraction system, a natural or mechanical air supply system is required.

  1. a) In regard to natural air supply system, air can be supplied via openings on exterior wall or air supply shafts fitted with automatically controlled and remotely controlled valves. Openings must be positioned on the lower section of protected rooms. In order to make up for air in atriums and corridors thereof, doorways of exit discharges are allowed as long as these doors must be automatically and remotely controlled. Total clear area of open doorways must be determined in accordance with D.4 and ensure a maximum air velocity coursing through the doorways of 6 m/s;
  2. b) In regard to mechanical air supply system for smoke control, the system can be designed as a stand-alone system or as air supply system that supplies air into fire protection vestibules or elevator shafts (other than fire service elevator shafts and N2 stairwells).

 

APPENDIX E

(regulations)

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE

E.1 Fire separation distance between houses, buildings, and public structures, and from houses, buildings, and public structures to buildings, manufacturing facilities, and storage facilities

Minimum fire separation distance between houses, buildings, and public structures (including office buildings and service buildings) shall conform to Schedule E.1.

Minimum fire separation distance from houses, buildings, and public structures mentioned above to buildings, manufacturing facilities, and storage facilities shall conform to Schedule E.1.

If separation distance between buildings and structures must be enforced for the purpose of firefighting and rescue, separation distance between 2 constructions must meet respective requirements in addition to those under this Appendix pertaining to fire separation distance.

NOTE: Fire separation distance applicable to parking garages shall be similar to that applicable to warehouses; fire separation distance applicable to administrative – auxiliary buildings in industrial facilities shall be similar to that applicable to public structures

Schedule E.1 – Fire separation distance between houses, buildings, and public structures, and from houses, buildings, and public structures to buildings, manufacturing facilities, and storage facilities

Fire resistance category of the first building Fire risk level of structures of the first building Minimum fire separation distance, m, to another house or public structure with corresponding fire resistance category and fire risk level of structure
I, II, III

S0

II, III

S1

IV

S0, S1

IV, V

S2, S3

1. Houses and public structures
I, II, III S0 6 8 8 10
II, III S1 8 10 10 12
IV S0, S1 8 10 10 12
IV, V S2, S3 10 12 12 15
2. Manufacturing facilities and storage facilities
I, II, III S0 10 12 12 12
II, III S1 12 12 12 12
IV S0, S1 12 12 12 15
IV, V S2, S3 15 15 15 18
NOTE 1: Distance between buildings and constructions shall be the clearance between exterior walls or enclosing structures thereof. In case structures and structural elements of buildings and constructions are made from combustible materials and protrude by more than 1 m, separation distance shall be the clearance between these protruding structures and structural elements.

NOTE 2: Fire separation distance under this schedule between solid walls (without windows) of houses, buildings, public structures (with fire resistance categories of I through IV; fire risk levels of structures of S0 and S1; minimum combustibility of Ch1 of exterior wall finishes; minimum combustibility and flame spread of Ch1 and LT1 of exterior (anti-absorbent) layer of the roof) to other buildings and constructions can be reduced by 20%.

NOTE 3: Fire separation distance under this schedule of two-storey buildings with prefabricated frame-sheet structures and fire resistance category V and buildings tiled with combustible materials must be increased by 20%.

NOTE 4: Fire separation distance between any 2 houses, buildings, and public structures is not required if the taller than larger wall between these 2 houses, buildings, and public structures or both opposing walls of these houses, buildings, and public structures are type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls.

NOTE 5: Fire separation distance between houses and from houses to other civil structures is not required if total construction area (including land area that is not built on between them) does not exceed the largest permissible floor area in a fire compartment with the lowest fire resistance category and fire risk level of structures (see Appendix H)

NOTE 6: Fire separation distance between houses and public structures is not required if total construction area (including land area that is not built on between them) does not exceed the largest permissible floor area in a fire compartment (see Appendix H).

This note does not apply to buildings and constructions placed under fire risk categories F.1 and F4.1, retailers of combustible gas, combustible liquid, ignitable liquid, materials and substances that explode or combust upon contact with water or oxygen or one another.

NOTE 7: Fire separation distance under this schedule can be reduced by 50% for buildings and constructions that have fire resistance categories of I and II, fire risk level of structure of S0, and are all equipped with automatic fire extinguishing system.

E.2 Fire separation distance between manufacturing facilities and storage facilities

Fire separation distance between buildings in an industrial facility, depending on fire resistance categories and fire risk levels of structures and fire and explosion risk classes, must not be lower than values under Schedule E.2.

Schedule E.2 – Fire separation distance between buildings in an industrial facility

Fire resistance category and fire risk level of structures Distance between buildings, m
Fire resistance category of I and II.

Fire resistance category of III and IV and fire risk level of S0

Fire resistance category of III and fire risk level of S1 Fire resistance category of III and fire risk level of S2, S3. Fire resistance category of IV and fire risk level of S1, S2, and S3. Fire resistance category of V
1. Fire resistance category of I and II. Fire resistance category of III and IV and fire risk level of S0 Class D and Class E buildings: not required 9 12
Class A, class B, class C buildings: 9 m (see note 3)
2. Fire resistance category of III and fire risk level of S1 9 12 15
3. Fire resistance category of III and fire risk level of S2, S3. Fire resistance category of IV and fire risk level of S1, S2, and S3. Fire resistance category of V 12 15 18
NOTE 1: Minimum distance between buildings shall be the clearance between exterior walls or exterior structures thereof. If structures or structural elements of buildings and constructions are made from combustible materials and protrude by more than 1 m, fire separation distance shall be the clearance between these protruding structures and structural elements.

NOTE 2: Fire separation distance between F5 buildings is not required when:

a) Total floor area of 2 buildings or more with fire resistance category of III and IV does not exceed the maximum permissible area of a storey in a fire compartment (Appendix H) with the highest fire risk class and the lowest fire resistance category and fire risk level.

b) Taller or larger walls of buildings or constructions facing another construction are type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls.

c) Walls facing buildings and constructions with fire resistance category III, regardless of fire risk level therein, are type 2 fire-resistance-rated and have openings protected by type 2 fire-resistance-rated doors or fire dampers.

Separation distance between buildings must meet requirements for firefighting and rescue.

NOTE 3: Separation distance in this Schedule applicable to buildings with fire resistance category of I, II, III and IV with fire risk level of S0 and class A, class B, class C can be reduced to 6 m from 9 m if these buildings are equipped with automatic fire extinguishing system.

E.3 Area of openings not protected by fire protection measures on exterior wall and corresponding fire-resistance rating of exterior wall sections where fire protection measures are required

E.3.1 Fire separation distance by boundaries specified under this part serves to determine area of exterior wall that is not protected by fire protection measures and fire-resistance rating of exterior walls.

E.3.2 Fire separation distance by boundaries shall be the width of the open space which is measured diagonally from exterior wall of the building to boundary of adjacent plot, or to median of connecting roads, or to a reference line between exterior walls of adjacent buildings in the same plot.

The reference line shall be identified as follows:

– In case of one of the buildings is an existing building, the reference line shall be parallel to the exterior of the building and separated from the exterior of the building by a space whose width corresponds to total exterior area not protected by fire protection measures and fire-resistance rating of exterior wall of this building (see Schedules E.3, E.4a and E.4b);

– If both buildings are newly built, the reference line depends on exterior area not protected by fire protection measures and fire-resistance rating of exterior walls of both buildings.

– If exterior of the building is uneven, the safest calculations shall prevail.

NOTE: Sections of exterior walls that are not protected by fire protection measures are usually:

  1. a) Doorways (doors, windows, and similar) that are not qualified as fire-resistance-rated doors in fire-resistance-rated walls;
  2. b) Wall sections whose fire-resistance rating is lower than fire-resistance rating of corresponding fire-resistance-rated walls;
  3. c) Wall section whose exterior employs materials with fire risk equal or higher than Ch1 and LT1.

E.3.3 The ratio of the total largest area of openings not protected by fire protection measures to total area of wall surface facing the boundaries shall be determined in accordance with E.4a and E.4b. Fire-resistance rating of wall sections protected by fire protection measures is prescribed under Schedule E.3.

NOTE: In all cases, requirements for flame spread prevention must be met.

Schedule E.3 – Fire-resistance rating of exterior wall depending on fire separation distance by boundaries

Fire risk category by function Fire separation distance by boundary, m Area of openings not protected by fire protection measures
≥ 0 and ≤ 1,5 > 1,5 and ≤ 3 > 3 and ≤ 9 > 9
1. F3.1, F3.2; F2.1 karaoke venues, discotheques; F5 buildings of class C E 120 E 60 0 0 See Schedule E.4a
2. F5 buildings of class A, class B E 180 E 120 E 60 0 See Schedule E.4a
3. Others E 60 E 60 0 0 See Schedule E.4b

Schedule E.4a – Ratio of the total largest area of openings not protected by fire protection measures to total area of wall surface facing the boundaries, % (applicable to buildings of sections 1, 2 Schedule E.3)

Fire separation distance by boundary, m Total area of exterior wall, m2
9 14 19 23 28 37 47 56 65 74 84 93 140 186 233 326 465 930 ≥ 1860
0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0,9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1,2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1,5 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
1,8 9 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2,1 12 10 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
2,4 17 13 11 9 9 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4
2,7 21 16 13 12 10 9 8 7 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4
3,0 27 20 16 14 12 11 9 8 8 7 7 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 4
4,6 69 48 38 31 27 21 18 16 14 13 12 12 9 8 7 6 6 5 4
6,1 100 91 70 57 48 38 31 27 24 22 20 18 16 12 10 9 7 6 5
7,6 100 100 100 91 77 59 48 41 36 32 29 27 20 16 14 11 9 7 5
9,0 100 100 100 100 100 86 59 56 52 46 42 38 27 22 18 15 12 8 6
> 9,0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

 

Schedule E.4b – Ratio of the total largest area of openings not protected by fire protection measures to total area of wall surface facing the boundaries, % (applicable to buildings of section 3 Schedule E.3)

Fire separation distance by boundary, m Total area of exterior wall, m2
9 14 19 23 28 37 47 56 65 74 84 93 140 186 233 326 465 930 ≥ 1860
0,0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0,9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
1,2 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1,5 12 11 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1,8 18 15 13 12 11 10 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7
2,1 25 20 17 15 14 12 11 11 10 10 10 9 9 8 8 8 8 7 7
2,4 33 2.5 21 19 17 15 14 13 12 11 11 11 10 9 9 8 8 7 7
2,7 43 32 27 23 21 18 16 15 14 13 12 12 11 10 9 9 8 8 7
3,0 55 40 33 28 25 21 19 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 9 8 7
> 3,0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
NOTE: Values that fall in between parameters can be determined via interpolating Schedule E.4a and E.4b

 

APPENDIX F

(regulations)

NOMINAL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF SOME STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

F.1 Wall structural elements

Schedule F.1 – Masonry wall or concrete wall

Structures and materials Minimum thickness excluding the plaster, mm, to maintain fire-resistance rating
For load bearing structural elements For non-load bearing structural elements
REI REI REI REI REI REI El El El El El El
240 180 120 90 60 30 240 180 120 90 60 30
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)
1. Reinforced concrete wall with concrete cover protecting the primary load bearing reinforcement of 25 mm:
a) Not plastered (designed in accordance with selected and applied standards)
b) Plastered with sand and cement mix to 12,5 mm of thickness 180 100 100 75 75
2. Lightweight concrete wall with Group 23) aggregate:
Plastered with sand and cement mix to 13 mm of thickness 150 150 150 150 150 150
3. Terracotta walls, concrete masonry walls:
a) Not plastered 200 200 100 100 100 100 170 170 100 100 75 75
b) Plastered with sand and cement mix to 13 mm of thickness 200 200 100 100 100 100 170 170 100 100 75 75
4. Concrete masonry wall with Group 1 1) aggregate:
a) Not plastered 150 100 100 100 100 150 75 75 75 50
b) Plastered with sand and cement mix to 12,5 mm of thickness 150 100 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 50
5. Concrete masonry wall with Group 2 2) aggregate:
a) Not plastered 100 100 100 100 150 100 100 75 50
b) Plastered with sand and cement mix to 12,5 mm of thickness 100 100 100 100 150 100 100 75 50
6. Aerated concrete masonry wall with mass per unit volume ranging from 480 kg/m3 to 1 200 kg/m3: 180 140 100 100 100 100 100 62 62 50 50
7. Hollow concrete masonry wall with the void running along the thickness of the wall and Group 1 1) aggregate:
a) Not plastered 100 100 100 100 150 100 100 75 75
b) Plastered with sand and cement mix to 12,5 mm of thickness 100 100 100 100 150 100 75 75 75
8. Hollow concrete masonry wall with the void running along the thickness of the wall and Group 2 2) aggregate
a) Not plastered 150 150 125 125 125
b) Plastered with sand and cement mix to 12,5 mm of thickness 150 150 125 125 100
9. Hollow clay brick with less than 50% of void areas:
Plastered with sand and cement mix to 12,5 mm of thickness 100 75
10. Cavity wall, outer wall made from terracotta bricks or blocks, concrete with at least 100 mm of thickness and:
a) Inner wall made from bricks or clay blocks or concrete 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 75
b) Inner wall made from bricks or concrete masonry with Group 1 1) aggregate, solid or hollow 100 100 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 75
11. Cavity wall with outer wall made from hollow clay bricks with less than 50% of void areas as stated under section 9 and inner wall made from aerated concrete blocks with mass per unit volume ranging from 480 kg/m3 to 1 200 kg/m3: 150 140 100 100 100 100 75 75 75 75 75 75
1) “Group 1 aggregate” means: cenospheres, pumice, blast furnace slag, pelletized fly ash, bricks, other grounded baked clay products (including ceramsite sand), clinkers, and crushed limestone.

2) “Group 2 aggregate” means: flint, granite, and all crushed natural stones other than limestone.

NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously.

 

Schedule F.2 – Non-load bearing exterior wall

Structures and materials Fire-resistance rating
1. Framing steel walls whose outer layers are made of non-combustible sheets and inner layers are:
a) Plastered with sand and cement mix or gypsum to 12,5 mm of thickness on top of steel mesh El 240
b) 2 boards of 9,5 mm of thickness El 30
c) Boards of 9,5 mm of thickness and plastered with gypsum to 12,5 mm of thickness El 30
d) Boards of 12,5 mm of thickness and plastered with gypsum to 5 mm of thickness El 30
2. Wood stud wall framing whose outer layers are sand and cement mix or cement – lime 1) of 10 mm of thickness and inner layers are:
a) Plastered with gypsum to 16 mm on top of steel mesh El 60
b) Boards of 9,5 mm of thickness and plastered with gypsum to 12,5 mm of thickness El 60
c) Boards of 12,5 mm of thickness and plastered with gypsum to 5 mm of thickness El 60
d) Aerated concrete blocks with thickness of:
50 mm El 180
62 mm El 240
75 mm El 240
100 mm El 240
3. Wood stud wall framing whose outer layers are brick or clay block or concrete masonry block of 100 mm of thickness and inner layers are plastered with gypsum to 16 mm of thickness on top of steel mesh El 240
4. Wood stud wall framing whose outer layers are clapboards or plywood boards of 9,5 mm of thickness 1) and inner layers are:
a) Plastered with gypsum to 16 mm on top of steel mesh El 30
b) Boards of 9,5 mm of thickness and plastered with gypsum to 12,5 mm of thickness El 30
c) Boards of 12,5 mm of thickness and plastered with gypsum to 5 mm of thickness El 30
d) Aerated concrete blocks with thickness of:
50 mm El 180
62 mm El 240
75 mm El 240
100 mm El 240
1) The presence of membrane preventing the diffusion of combustible gas throughout the thickness of these structures must be considered useless for the purpose of determining fire resistance of these structures.
NOTE: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

 

F.2 Reinforced concrete girders

Schedule F.3 – Reinforced concrete girders

Properties Minimum value, mm, in order to maintain fire-resistance rating
R 240 R 180 R 120 R 90 R 60 R 30
1. Silica-based aggregate concrete:

 

a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 651) 551) 451) 35 25 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 280 240 180 140 110 80
2. Silica-based aggregate concrete plastered with cement or gypsum to 15 mm of thickness on top of steel mesh:
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 501) 40 30 20 15 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 250 210 170 110 85 70
3. Silica-based aggregate concrete plastered with vermiculite/gypsum 2) to 15 mm of thickness:
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 25 15 15 15 15 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 170 145 125 85 60 60
4. Lightweight aggregate concrete:
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 50 45 35 30 20 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 250 200 160 130 100 80
1) Additional reinforcement is allowed if necessary.

2) Vermiculite/gypsum must have mixing ratio based on volume ranging from 1,5:1 to 2:1.

NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously.

 

F.3 Prestressed reinforced concrete girders

Schedule F.4 – Prestressed reinforced concrete girders

Properties Minimum value, mm, in order to maintain fire-resistance rating
R 240 R 180 R 120 R 90 R 60 R 30
1. Silica-based aggregate concrete:

 

a) Average prestressing concrete cover 1001) 851) 651) 501) 40 25
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 280 240 180 140 110 80
2. Silica-based aggregate concrete plastered with gypsum to 15 mm of thickness on top of steel mesh:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 901) 75 50 40 30 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 250 210 170 110 85 70
3. Silica-based aggregate concrete plastered with vermiculite/gypsum2) to 15 mm of thickness:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 751) 60 45 30 25 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 170 145 125 85 60 60
4. Silica-based aggregate concrete plastered with vermiculite/gypsum 2) to 25 mm of thickness:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 50 45 30 25 15 15
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 140 125 85 70 60 60
5. Lightweight aggregate concrete:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 80 65 50 40 30 20
b) Cross-sectional width of girders 250 200 160 130 100 80
1) Additional reinforcement is allowed if necessary

2) Vermiculite/gypsum must have mixing ratio based on volume ranging from 1,5:1 to 2:1.

NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously.

 

F.4 Reinforced concrete columns

Schedule F.5 – Reinforced concrete columns (all 4 sides are exposed to fire)

Properties Minimum value, mm, in order to maintain fire-resistance rating
R 240 R 180 R 120 R 90 R 60 R 30
1. Silica-based aggregate concrete:
a) Without additional protective measures 450 400 300 250 200 150
b) Plastered with cement or gypsum to 15 mm of thickness on top of steel mesh 300 275 225 150 150 150
c) Plastered with vermiculite/gypsum1) 275 225 200 150 120 120
2. Limestone or silica-based aggregate concrete:
Additional reinforcement is allowed within concrete cover if necessary 300 275 225 200 190 150
3. Lightweight aggregate concrete 300 275 225 200 190 150
1) Vermiculite/gypsum must have mixing ratio based on volume ranging from 1,5:1 to 2:1
NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously.

 

Schedule F.6 – Reinforced concrete columns (1 side is exposed to fire)

Properties Minimum value, mm, in order to maintain fire-resistance rating
R 240 R 180 R 120 R 90 R 60 R 30
Silica-based aggregate concrete:
a) Without additional protective measures 180 150 100 100 75 75
b) The side exposed to fire is plastered with vermiculite/gypsum1) to 15 mm of thickness 125 100 75 75 65 65
1) Vermiculite/gypsum must have mixing ratio based on volume ranging from 1,5:1 to 2:1.
NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously

 

F.5 Steel structures

Schedule F.7 – Encased supporting steel columns (column segment above 1 m in length does not weight less than 45 kg)

Structures and encasement materials Minimum thickness, mm, of encasement to maintain fire-resistance rating
R 240 R 180 R 120 R 90 R 60 R 30
A. Solid encasement 1) (not plastered)
1. Concrete with natural aggregate and minimum mix ratio of 1:2:4 2):
a) Non-load bearing concrete, fitted with reinforcement steel3) 50 25 25 25 25
b) Load bearing concrete, fitted with reinforcement steel (designed in accordance with selected and applied standards) 75 50 50 50 50
2. Solid clay bricks 100 75 50 50 50 50
3. Solid blocks made from cenosphere concrete or pumice concrete, fitted with reinforcement steel3) at every horizontal network 75 60 50 50 50 50
B. Hollow encasement 4)
1. Solid clay bricks fitted with reinforcement steel at every horizontal network, not plastered 115 50 50 50 50
2. Solid blocks made from cenosphere concrete or pumice concrete, fitted with reinforcement steel3) at every horizontal network, not plastered 75 50 50 50 50
1) Solid encasement means the outer cover is fixed onto the steel pillar, leaving no gap between surfaces, and all joints and networks contained therein are closed and solid.

2) The ratio of 1:2:4 means mixing ratio of cement : sand : aggregate by volume. Heavyweight concrete with minimum grade of B20 as per TCVN 5574:2018 is considered to have qualified this requirement.

3) Steel reinforcement must be steel wires with minimum diameter of 2,3 mm or steel mesh with minimum area density of 0,48 kg/m2. The spacing between reinforcement bars contained by concrete cover must not exceed 150 mm regardless of direction.

4) Hollow encasement means there is a void between the encasement and the steel. All hollow encasement of columns must be filled effectively at every floor elevation.

 

Schedule F.8 – Encased steel girders (a girder segment above 1 m in length does not weight less than 30 kg)

Structures and encasement materials Minimum thickness, mm, of encasement to maintain fire-resistance rating
R 240 R 180 R 120 R 90 R 60 R 30
A. Solid encasement 1) (not plastered)
1. Concrete with natural aggregate and minimum mix ratio of 1:2:4 2):
a) Non-load bearing concrete, fitted with reinforcement steel3) 75 50 25 25 25 25
b) Load bearing concrete, fitted with reinforcement steel (designed in accordance with selected and applied standards) 75 75 50 50 50 50
B. Hollow encasement 4)
1. Steel mesh:
a) Plastered with cement – lime to a thickness of 38 25 19 12,5
b) Plastered with gypsum to a thickness of 22 19 16 12,5
1) Solid encasement means the outer cover is fixed onto the steel surface, leaving no gap between surfaces, and all joints and networks contained therein are closed and solid.

2) The ratio of 1:2:4 means mixing ratio of cement : sand : aggregate by volume. Heavyweight concrete with minimum grade of B20 as per TCVN 5574:2018 is considered to have qualified this requirement.

3) Steel reinforcement must be steel wires with minimum diameter of 2,3 mm or steel mesh with minimum area density of 0,48 kg/m2. The spacing between reinforcement bars contained by concrete cover must not exceed 150 mm regardless of direction.

4) Hollow encasement means there is a void between the encasement and the steel. All hollow encasement of columns must be filled effectively at every floor elevation.

F.6 Floor structures

Schedule F.9 – Reinforced concrete floors (of silica-based or limestone-based aggregate)

Floor structures Minimum value, mm, in order to maintain fire-resistance rating
REI REI REI REI REI REI
240 180 120 90 60 30
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
1. Solid floor:
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 25 25 20 20 15 15
b) Overall depth 1) of the cross-section 150 150 125 125 100 100
2. Floor with void areas whose cross section is circular or cubic. Solid area must account for at least 50% of total cross-section area of the floor:
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 25 25 20 20 15 15
b) Thickness of concrete underneath the void 50 40 40 30 25 20
c) Overall depth 1) of the cross-section 190 175 160 140 110 100
3. Hollow floor with one or multiple cubic void areas whose width exceeds height along the length of the floor
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 25 25 20 20 15 15
b) Thickness of lower flange 50 40 40 30 25 20
c) Overall depth 1) of the cross-section 230 205 180 155 130 105
4. Ribbed floor whose void areas are filled with clay blocks or inverted T beams whose void areas are filled with concrete blocks or clay blocks. If solid section of the floor is less than 50% of total cross section area, the underside must be plastered to 15 mm of thickness:
a) Average concrete cover protecting the main load bearing reinforcement 25 25 20 20 15 15
b) Width of cross section of rib or T beam, measured on the underside 125 100 90 80 70 50
c) Overall depth 1) of the cross-section 190 175 160 140 110 100
5. T section:
a) Average concrete cover measured on the underside 65 2) 55 2) 45 2) 35 25 15
b) Concrete cover measured on the side 65 55 45 35 25 15
c) Width of cross-section of rib 150 140 115 90 75 60
d) Thickness of flange 150 150 125 125 100 90
6. Inverted U-channel flooring section whose radius of curvature at the junction with the floor rib is not greater than the height of the cross section:
a) Average concrete cover measured on the underside 65 2) 55 2) 45 2) 35 25 15
b) Concrete cover measured on the side 40 30 25 20 15 10
c) Width of U rib 75 70 60 45 40 30
d) Thickness of the upper side 150 150 125 125 100 90
7. Inverted U-channel flooring section whose radius of curvature at the junction with the floor rib is greater than the height of the cross section:
a) Average concrete cover measured on the underside 65 2) 55 2) 45 2) 35 25 15
b) Concrete cover measured on the side 40 30 25 20 15 10
c) Width of U rib 70 60 50 40 35 25
d) Thickness of the upper side 150 150 100 100 75 65
1) May include thickness of coating or finish layers which use non-combustible materials.

2) Additional reinforcement is allowed if necessary.

NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously.

 

Schedule F.10 – Prestressed reinforced concrete floor (of silica-based or limestone-based aggregate)

Floor structures Minimum value, mm, in order to maintain fire-resistance rating
REI

240

REI

180

REI

120

REI

90

REI

60

REI

30

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
1. Solid floor:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 65 1) 50 1) 40 30 25 15
b) Overall depth 2) of the cross-section 150 150 125 125 100 100
2. Floor with void areas whose cross section is circular or cubic. Solid area must account for at least 50% of total cross-section area of the floor:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 65 1) 50 1) 40 30 25 15
b) Thickness of concrete underneath the void 50 40 40 30 25 20
c) Overall depth 2) of the cross-section 190 175 160 140 110 100
3. Hollow floor with one or multiple cubic void areas whose width exceeds height along the length of the floor:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 65 1) 50 1) 40 30 25 15
b) Thickness of lower flange 65 50 40 30 25 15
c) Overall depth 2) of the cross-section 230 205 180 155 130 105
4. Ribbed floor whose void areas are filled with clay blocks or inverted T beams whose void areas are filled with concrete blocks or clay blocks. If solid section of the floor is less than 50% of total cross section area, the underside must be plastered to 15 mm of thickness:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover 651 ) 50 1) 40 30 25 15
b) Width of cross section of rib or T beam, measured on the underside 125 100 90 80 70 50
c) Overall depth 2) of the cross-section 190 175 160 140 110 100
5. T section:
a) Average prestressing concrete cover measured on the underside 100 1) 85 1) 65 1) 50 1) 40 25
b) Thickness of prestressing concrete cover measured on the side 100 85 65 50 40 25
c) Width of rib 250 200 150 110 90 60
d) Thickness of flange 2) 150 150 125 125 100 90
6. Inverted U-channel flooring section whose radius of curvature at the junction with the floor rib is not greater than the height of the cross section:
a) Average prestressed concrete cover measured on the underside 100 1) 85 1) 65 1) 50 1) 40 25
b) Thickness of prestressing concrete cover measured on the side 50 45 35 25 20 15
c) Width of U sides 125 100 75 55 45 30
d) Thickness of the upper side 2) 150 150 125 125 100 90
7. Inverted U-channel flooring section whose radius of curvature at the junction with the floor rib is greater than the height of the cross section:
a) Average prestressed concrete cover measured on the underside 100 1) 85 1) 65 1) 50 1) 40 25
b) Thickness of prestressing concrete cover measured on the side 50 45 35 25 20 15
c) Width of U rib 110 90 70 50 40 30
d) Thickness of the upper side 2) 150 150 125 125 100 90
1) Additional reinforcement is allowed if necessary.

2) May include thickness of coating or finish layers which use non-combustible materials.

NOTE 1: Rules for determining fire-resistance ratings shall conform to part 2.

NOTE 2: Fire-resistance ratings in the schedule only apply to statically determinate structures. Fire-resistance ratings of statically indeterminate structures shall be calculated in accordance with selected and applied standards.

NOTE 3: Parameters of cross-section of components must be taken into account simultaneously.

 

APPENDIX G

(regulations)

DISTANCE TO EXIT ACCESSES AND WIDTH OF EXIT ACCESSES

G.1 Maximum travel distance from the furthest (attended, occupied) point to the nearest exit access

G.1.1 Houses

The maximum travel distance from entry doors of flats (F1.3 buildings) or dwelling units (F1.2 buildings) to the nearest exit access (stairwells or exit discharges) is prescribed under Schedule G.1.

Schedule G.1 – Maximum travel distance from entry doors of flats or dwelling units to the nearest exit access

Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum travel distance from entry doors of flats or dwelling units to the nearest exit access, m
If doors are located between stairwells or between exit discharges If doors are located on dead-end corridors
I, II S0 40 25
II S1 30 20
III S0 30 20
S1 25 15
IV S0 25 15
S1, S2 20 10
V No regulations 20 10

G.1.2 Public structures

G.1.2.1 The maximum travel distance along means of egress from entry doors of the furthest rooms in public structures (other than toilets, cleaning rooms, rooms for other purposes) to the nearest exit access (either exit discharges or stairwells or type 2 staircases allowed by this document) is prescribed under Schedule G.2a.

NOTE: In regard to storeys whose corridors are not enclosed by fire protection assemblies in accordance with 3.3.5 or do not comply with 3.3.4, the maximum travel distance of means of egress must be calculated from the furthest point of rooms on those storeys. This note section does not apply to storeys where karaoke rooms or discotheques are located.

G.1.2.2 The maximum travel distance from any point of rooms with varying volume without audience seating to the nearest exit access is prescribed under Schedule G.2b. If multiple primary exit accesses are grouped into one exit access, the width of the exit access must not be lower than the total width of all grouped exit accesses.

Schedule G.2a – Maximum travel distance from entry doors of rooms to the nearest exit access in public structures

Fire resistance category Travel distance, m, based on density of evacuating occupants, people/m2
≤ 2 > 2 and ≤ 3 > 3 and ≤ 4 > 4 and ≤ 5 > 5
1. From rooms whose entry doors are located between stairwells or exit discharges
I, II, III 60 50 40 35 20
IV 40 35 30 25 15
V 30 25 20 15 10
2. From rooms whose entry doors lead into dead-end corridors or common lobbies
I, II, III 30 25 20 15 10
IV 20 15 15 10 7
V 15 10 10 5 5
NOTE 1: Density of evacuating occupants shall be determined by dividing the total number of occupants evacuating by means of egress by area of such means of egress.

NOTE 2: The distances under Schedule G.2a shall be applied as follows: Use column (6) for preschools; Use column (3) for primary schools, secondary schools, vocational education and training facilities, colleges, professional colleges, and universities; Use column (5) for in-patient treatment facilities; Use column (4) for hotels. For other public structures, density of evacuating occupants shall be determined for each project specifically.

Schedule G.2b – Maximum travel distance from any point of public rooms without audience seating to the nearest exit access

Room Fire resistance category Maximum travel distance, m, from any point of the room to the nearest exit access based on room volume, 1 000 m3
≤ 5 > 5 and ≤ 10 > 10
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. Waiting rooms, ticket sale rooms, exhibits, galleries, ballrooms, resting rooms, and similar. I, II 30 45 55
III, IV 20 30 See note
V 15 See note See note
2. Dining rooms, reading rooms when clear area of each main passage per occupant is not lower than 0,2 m2. I, II 65 See note See note
III, IV 45 See note See note
V 30 See note See note
3. Mercantile rooms when clear area of main passages accounts for at least 25% of room area. I, II 50 65 80
III, IV 35 45 See note
V 25 See note See note
4. Mercantile rooms when clear area of main passages accounts for less than 25% of room area. I, II 25 30 35
III, IV 15 20 See note
V 10 See note See note
NOTE: These distances must be determined by separate technical evaluation.

G.1.3 Manufacturing facility and storage facility

G.1.3.1 Maximum travel distance from the furthest attended location in the room the nearest exit access (either an exit discharge or a stairwell) is prescribed under Schedule G.3. In regard to rooms larger than 1 000 m2, distances under Schedule G.3 shall include the length of corridors that lead to the exit accesses.

G.1.3.2 Travel distances under Schedule G.3 that correspond to room volumes which fall in between the specified volumes shall be determined by interpolation.

G.1.3.3 Travel distances under Schedule G.3 shall apply to rooms up to 6 m in height. If rooms are taller than 6 m, these distances shall be increased as follows: by 20% if rooms are up to 12 m in height; by 30% if rooms are up to 18 m in height; by 40% if rooms are up to 24 m in height without exceeding 140 m in case of class A, class B rooms and 240 m in case of class C rooms.

G.1.3.4 Travel distance from entry doors of the furthest rooms that are not larger than 1 000 m2 in manufacturing facilities to the nearest exit access (either an exit discharge or a stairwell) shall be prescribed under Schedule G.4.

Schedule G.3 – Maximum travel distance from the furthest attended location to the nearest exit access in manufacturing facility

Room volume, 1000 m3 Class of room Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Travel distance, m, when density of occupant evacuating on common passage, people/m2
≤ 1 > 1 and ≤ 3 > 3 and ≤ 5
≤ 15 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 40 25 15
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 100 60 40
III, IV S1 70 40 30
V S2, S3 50 30 20
30 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 60 35 25
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 145 85 60
III, IV S1 100 60 40
40 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 80 50 35
40 C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 160 95 65
III, IV S1 110 65 45
50 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 120 70 50
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 180 105 75
III, IV S1 160 95 65
≥ 60 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 140 85 60
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 200 110 85
III, IV S1 180 105 75
≥ 80 C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 240 140 100
III, IV S1 200 110 85
Regardless of volume C4, D I, II, III, IV S0 Any Any Any
III, IV S1 160 95 65
V No regulations 120 70 50
Regardless of volume E I, II, III, IV S0, S1 Any Any Any
IV, V S2, S3 160 95 65
NOTE 1: Density of evacuating occupants shall be determined by dividing the total number of occupants evacuating by means of egress by area of such means of egress

 

Schedule G.4 – Travel distance from entry doors to manufacturing rooms up to 1 000 m2 in area to the nearest exit access

Positioning of doors Class of room Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Travel distance along corridor, m, from doors of rooms to the nearest exit access, when density of people evacuating through common passages, people/m2
≤ 2 > 2 and ≤ 3 > 3 and ≤ 4 > 4 and ≤ 5
1. Between 2 exit accesses A, B I, II, III, IV S0 60 50 40 35
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 120 95 80 65
III, IV S1 85 65 55 45
No regulations S2, S3 60 50 40 35
C4, D, E I, II, III, IV S0 180 140 120 100
III, IV S1 125 100 85 70
No regulations S2, S3 90 70 60 50
2. Into dead-end corridors Regardless of class I, II, III, IV S0 30 25 20 15
III, IV S1 20 15 15 10
No regulations S2, S3 15 10 10 8

G.2 Clear width of exit access

G.2.1 Public structures

G.2.1.1 Width of an exit access from a corridor into a stairwell and width of stringers must be determined on the basis of number of occupants evacuating through the exit access number of evacuating occupants per 1 m of width of exit access (exit access door). Number of evacuating occupants per 1 m of width of exit access varies depending on fire resistance category of the building without exceeding:

– 165 people/m in a building with fire resistance category of I or II;

– 115 people/m in a building with fire resistance category of III or IV;

– 80 people/m in a building with fire resistance category of V.

G.2.1.2 For the purpose of calculating width of exit accesses of buildings affiliated with primary schools, secondary schools, boarding schools, and boarding sections thereof, occupant load of each storey must be determined on the basis of occupant load of classrooms, rooms dedicated for vocational education and training, dwelling units, sports, conference spaces, and lecture halls on that storey (see G.3, Schedule G.9).

G.2.1.3 Width of doors of classrooms occupied by more than 15 students must not be lower than 0,9 m.

G.2.1.4 Width of an exit access from rooms without audience seating must be determined based on the number of occupants evacuating through the exit access according to Schedule G.5 without being lower than 1,2 m in rooms with occupant load exceeding 50 people.

Schedule G.5 – Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access of rooms without audience seating in public structures

Room Fire resistance category Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access in rooms with volume of, 1 000 m3
≤ 5 > 5 and ≤ 10 > 10
1. Mercantile rooms when clear area of primary means of egress is not lower than 25% of clear area of the rooms; Dining and reading rooms when density of occupants on each primary passage does not exceed 5 people/m2. I, II 165 220 275
III, IV 115 155 See note
V 80 See note See note
2. Mercantile rooms when clear area of primary means of egress is lower than 25% of clear area of the rooms; and other rooms I, II 75 100 125
III, IV 50 70 See note
V 40 See note See note
NOTE: The maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access must be determined in accordance with separate technical evaluation.

G.2.1.5 Width of primary exit accesses in a mercantile room must not be lower than:

– 1,4 m – if area for mercantile occupancy is not larger than 100 m2;

– 1,6 m – if area for mercantile occupancy is larger than 100 m2 and not larger than 150 m2;

– 2,0 m – if area for mercantile occupancy is larger than 150 m2 and not larger than 400 m2;

– 2,5 m – if area for mercantile occupancy is larger than 400 m2.

G.2.1.6 Number of occupants per 1 m of width of means of egress from bleachers of sports and outdoor performance structures is prescribed under Schedule G.6.

Schedule G.6 – Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of means of egress from bleachers of sports and outdoor performance structures

Fire resistance category of structures Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of means of egress
Along staircases of main passages of bleachers Through doors from main passages of bleachers
Descending Ascending Descending Ascending
I, II 600 825 620 1 230
III, IV 420 580 435 860
V 300 415 310 615
NOTE: Total number of occupant evacuating through an exit access must not exceed 1 500 people if bleachers have fire resistance category of I or II. Total number of occupants evacuating through means of egress must be reduced by 30% in bleachers with fire resistance category of III and by 50% in bleachers with fire resistance category of IV or V.

G.2.2 Manufacturing facility and storage facility

G.2.2.1 Width of an exit access of a room must be determined for the number of occupants evacuating through such exit access and number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access specified under Schedule G.7 and must not be lower than 0,9 m.

Number of occupants per 1 m of width of an exit access that corresponds to building volumes that fall in between specified volumes shall be determined by interpolation.

In regard to rooms taller than 6 m, number of occupants per 1 m of width of each exit access in these rooms shall be increased:

– By 20 % if fire height of the building is 12 m;

– By 30 % if fire height of the building is 18 m; by 40 % if fire height of the building is 24 m.

If fire height of buildings falls in between the specified values, the number of occupants per 1 m of width of each exit access shall be determined by interpolation.

Schedule G.7 – Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access from any room of manufacturing facility

Room volume, 1 000 m3 Class of room Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access from any room, people
≤ 15 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 45
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 110
III, IV S1 75
No regulations S2, S3 55
30 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 65
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 155
III, IV S1 110
40 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 85
C1 , C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 175
III, IV S1 120
50 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 130
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 195
III, IV S1 135
≥ 60 A, B I, II, III, IV S0 150
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 220
III, IV S1 155
≥ 80 C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 260
III, IV S1 220
Regardless of volume C4, D I, II, III, IV S0 260
III, IV S1 180
No regulations S2, S3 130
Regardless of volume E No regulations

G.2.2.2 Width of an exit access from a corridor to exit discharge or a stairwell must be determined based on total number of occupants evacuating through such exit access and number of people per 1 m of width of exit access under Schedule G.8 and must not be lower than 0,9 m.

Schedule G.8 – Maximum number of occupants per 1 m of width of exit access from corridors of manufacturing facility

Class of room with the highest fire risk level with exit access leading into corridor Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum number of people per 1 m of width of exit access from corridor, people
A, B I, II, III, IV S0 85
C1, C2, C3 I, II, III, IV S0 173
IV S1 120
No regulations S2, S3 85
C4, D, E I, II, III, IV S0 260
IV S1 180
No regulations S2, S3 130

G.3 Maximum number of occupants in buildings or building sections

The maximum number of occupants of a room, a storey, or a building shall be the occupant load of that room, storey, or building according to approved design. If occupant load is not specified by the design, the maximum number of occupants shall equal floor area of the room, storey, or building divided by floor space factor (m2/person) under Schedule G.9.

NOTE: The “floor area” mentioned above does not include area of staircases, elevators, lavatories, and other auxiliary sections.

Schedule G.9 – Floor space factor 1)

Occupying space 2), 3) Floor space factor, m2/person
1. Roofed playgrounds, halls, assembly spaces, clubs, discotheques, bars, karaoke venues, and similar sections 1,0
2. Major lobbies, atriums, reception areas, waiting lounges, and similar sections 3,0
3. Meeting rooms, guest rooms, conference rooms, dining rooms, reading rooms, studying rooms, canteens, and similar rooms 1,5
4. Markets, shopping malls, supermarkets 3,0
5. Galleries or (filming, radio, television, audio recording) studios 1,5
6. General department stores, barber shops, hairdresser shops, laundry shops, repair shops, or similar locations 3,0
7. Art galleries, product exhibits, museums, or similar spaces 5,0
8. Offices 6,0
9. Large furniture retailers such as chairs, tables, floor coverings, and similar 7,0
10. Kitchens or libraries 7,0
11. Bedrooms or bedrooms integrated with studying rooms 8,0
12. Living rooms, leisure rooms 10,0
13. Storage or storage units 30,0
14. Motor vehicle parking garages 2 people/parking space
1) If values under this Schedule are not used, floor space factor can be determined based on similar existing buildings. In this case, parameters must be able to reflect average occupant density in the peak time of the year.

2) If an occupying space is not mentioned above, value corresponding to a similar occupying space is allowed.

3) If a building section serves different purposes, the highest applicable floor space factor shall prevail. If a building contains different occupying spaces, each occupying space must be calculated using floor space factor corresponding to that occupying space.

 

APPENDIX H

(regulations)

FIRE RESISTANCE CATEGORY AND FIRE SAFETY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS OF BUILDINGS, CONSTRUCTIONS, AND FIRE COMPARTMENTS

H.1 Houses and suite-type dorms

Fire resistance categories, fire risk levels of structures, maximum permissible fire heights of buildings, and area of a storey in each fire compartment of houses and suite-type dorms are prescribed under Schedule H.1.

Schedule H.1 – Houses and suite-type dorms

Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum fire height of building, m Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2
I S0 75 2 500
II S0 50 2 500
S1 28 2 200
III S0 28 1 800
S1 15 1 800
IV S0 5 1 000
3 1 400
S1 5 800
3 1 200
S2 5 500
3 900
V No regulations 5 500
3 800
NOTE 1: Regulations of number of storeys (permissible fire height), area of fire compartments of F1.3 buildings with fire height ranging from exceeding 75 m to 150 m are prescribed under Appendix A.

NOTE 2: Load bearing components of two-storey buildings with fire resistance category of IV must have a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 30.

H.2 Public structures

H.2.1 General provisions

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, maximum fire height, and area of a storey within a fire compartment of public structures, including hotels and apartments (other than suite-type dorms and hotels that resemble houses) are prescribed under Schedule H.2.

Additional regulations under H.2.2 through H.2.12 are required in regard to public structures with corresponding fire risk categories by function.

Schedule H.2 – Public structures

Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum fire height of building, m Maximum permissible area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2, with the number of above-ground storeys (excluding the topmost mechanical floor)
1 2 3 4,5 6 through 9 10 through 16
I S0 50 6 000 5 000 5 000 5 000 5 000 2 500
II S0 50 6 000 4 000 4 000 4 000 4 000 2 200
II S1 28 5 000 3 000 3 000 2 000 1 200
III S0 15 3 000 2 000 2 000 1 200
III S1 12 2 000 1 400 1 200 800
IV S0 9 2 000 1 400
IV S1 6 2 000 1 400
IV S2, S3 6 1 200 800
V S1, S2, S3 6 1 200 800
NOTE 1: This Schedule applies to public structures mentioned under H.2.1, unless otherwise specified under H.2.2 through H.2.12.

NOTE 2: The “-“ symbol in the schedule indicates that a building with fire resistance category matching that on the same row is not allowed to have the same number of storey matching that on the same column.

NOTE 3: Load bearing structures of two-storey buildings with fire resistance category of IV must have minimum fire-resistance rating of R 45.

NOTE 4: Number of storeys (permissible fire height), area of fire compartments of public structures with fire height ranging from exceeding 50 m to 150 m are prescribed under Appendix A.

H.2.2 Service establishments (F3.5)

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, maximum fire height of buildings, and area of a storey within a fire compartment of service establishments (F3.5) are prescribed under Schedule H.3. Additional regulations under H.2.12 are required.

Schedule H.3 – Service establishments (F3.5)

Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structure Maximum fire height of building, m Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2
Single-storey building Multistorey building (up to 6 storeys excluding the topmost mechanical floor)
I S0 18 3 000 2 500
II S0 18 3 000 2 500
II S1 6 2 500 1 000
III S0 6 2 500 1 000
III S1 5 1 000
IV S0, S1 5 1 000
IV S2, S3 5 500
V S1, S2, S3 5 500
NOTE: The “-“ symbol in the schedule indicates that a building with fire resistance category matching that on the same row is not allowed to have the same number of storey matching that on the same column.

H.2.3 Commercial establishments (F3.1)

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structure, maximum fire height, and area of a storey within a fire compartment of commercial establishments (F3.1) are prescribed under Schedule H.4. Additional regulations under H.2.12 are required.

Schedule H.4 – Commercial establishments (F3.1)

Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structure Maximum fire height, m Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2
One storey Two storeys 3 through 5 storeys
I, II S0 28 3 500 3 000 2 500
III S0, S1 8 2 000 1 000
IV S0 3 1 000
IV, V S1, S2, S3 3 500
NOTE 1: The “-“ symbol in the schedule indicates that a building with fire resistance category matching that on the same row is not allowed to have the same number of storey matching that on the same column.

NOTE 2: The maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment of a single-storey commercial establishment (that is not a retailer of paint, varnish, finish materials, motor vehicle parts, components, carpets, or furniture) with fire resistance category of III as long as retail sections physically separated from other rooms by type 2 fire-resistance-rated walls.

NOTE 3: In regard to retailers with fire resistance category of I or II, building height can be increased by 1 storey if the topmost storey only contains storage, service rooms, and mechanical rooms.

NOTE 4: The number of storey shall equal the number of above-ground storey and exclude the topmost storey.

H.2.4 Kindergartens, preschools

H.2.4.1 Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, maximum fire height of buildings (fire compartments) of regular kindergartens and preschools (F1.1) are prescribed under Schedule H.5 depending on the maximum number of seats in the buildings. Additional regulations applicable to these buildings and regulations under H.2.12 are required.

Schedule H.5 – Kindergartens and preschools

Number of seats Fire resistance category, not lower Fire risk level of structures Maximum fire height, m, (number of above-ground storeys excluding the topmost mechanical floor)
≤ 50 No regulations No regulations 3 (1)
≤ 100 III S0, S1 6 (2)
≤ 150 II S0, S1
≤ 350 II S0 9 (3)
I S0

H.2.4.2 Inner walls, partitions, and floor structures of kindergartens and preschools (F1.1) and clubs (F2.1) in building with fire risk level of structure of S1 through S3, including wood structures/structural elements must have fire risk level of K0.

H.2.4.3 Kindergartens and preschools, regardless of seating capacity, must have maximum height of:

– Two storeys – for kindergartens and preschools dedicated for children with physical and/or mental disability;

– One storey – for kindergartens and preschools dedicated for children with visual impairment.

In regard to three-storey kindergartens, rooms for younger students must be positioned on the first storey.

H.2.4.4 Rooms for older students, music rooms, physical education rooms, leisure rooms, and service rooms are allowed on the third storey. In this case, rooms larger than 50 m2 require at least one exit access leading directly into stairwells.

Corridors connecting stairwells in kindergartens and preschools must be physically separated from rooms by at least type 2 fire-resistance-rated partitions. Doors of rooms must be tightly sealed.

H.2.4.5 Auxiliary sections of adjacent buildings used as leisure rooms for children in kindergartens and preschools must have similar fire resistance category and fire risk level of structures as the main buildings.

H.2.5 Primary schools and secondary schools (F4.1) and sleeping accommodations of boarding schools (F1.1)

H.2.5.1 Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structure, and maximum fire height of primary schools, secondary schools, academic blocks of boarding schools (F4.1), sleeping accommodations of boarding schools (F1.1) shall conform to Schedule H.6. Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment of these buildings shall conform to Schedule H.2. Additional regulations applicable to these buildings and regulations under H.2.12 are required.

Schedule H.6 – Primary schools and secondary schools (F4.1) and sleeping accommodations of boarding schools (F1.1)

Number of students or seats Fire risk level of structure Minimum fire resistance category Maximum fire height of the building, m (number of storey)
≤ 100 No regulations No regulations 3 (1)
≤ 270 S1 III 3 (1)
≤ 350 S0 III 7 (2)
S1 II 7 (2)
≤ 600 S0 II 11 (3)
Any S0 I 19 (5)
Sleeping accommodations
≤ 40 No regulations No regulations 3 (1)
≤ 80 S1, S2, S3 IV 3 (1)
≤ 140 S0 IV 3 (1)
≤ 200 S1 III 3 (1)
≤ 280 S0 III 7 (2)
Any S0 I, II 15 (4)
NOTE: The number of storey shall equal the number of above-ground storey and exclude the topmost storey.

H.2.5.2 Fire height of academic blocks and boarding blocks for children with mental and/or physical disability must not exceed 9 m.

H.2.6 Cultural establishments

H.2.6.1 Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, and maximum fire height of F2.1 and F2.2 cultural establishments (libraries, museums, galleries, clubs, theaters, auditoriums, cinemas, circuses, and buildings with similar occupancies) shall conform to Schedule H.7 depending on occupant load of the buildings or rooms.

H.2.6.2 Additional regulations applicable to these buildings and regulations under H.2.212 are required.

H.2.6.3 Occupant load of rooms equals the sum of fixed seats and temporary seats.

If cinemas contain several screening rooms, total occupant load of these screening rooms must not exceed values under Schedule H.7.

H.2.6.5 Load bearing structures of roof (truss, girders, and similar) of stage and rooms of theaters, clubs, and sports structures with fire resistance category ranging from I through III must have a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 45.

Schedule H.7 – Cultural establishments (F2.1 and F2.2) (such as libraries, museums, galleries, clubs, theaters, auditoriums, cinemas, circuses, and buildings with similar occupancies)

Fire risk category by function Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structure Maximum fire height, m, (number of above-ground storeys excluding the topmost mechanical floor) Occupant load, seats
F2.1 I S0 50 Any
II S0 9 (3) ≤ 800
II S1 6 (2) ≤ 600
III S0 3 (1) ≤ 400
IV, V S0, S1, S2, S3 3 (1) ≤ 300
F2.2 I S0 50 Any
II S0 50 ≤ 800
II S1 28 ≤ 600
III S0 9 (3) ≤ 400
III S1 6 (2) ≤ 300
IV, V S0, S1, S2, S3 3 (1) ≤ 300
NOTE 1: The maximum height at which rooms are allowed in F2.1 buildings which is determined by elevation of the first row of seats shall not exceed 9 m in regard to spaces with occupant load exceeding 600 seats. Spaces with occupant load of up to 300 seats are allowed at a height above 28 m are allowed in buildings with fire resistance category of I and fire risk level of structures of S0.

NOTE 2: Discotheques with occupant load exceeding 400 people and rooms serving other occupancies with occupant load exceeding 600 people are not allowed on a storey whose fire height exceeds 9 m in an F2.2 building. Spaces with occupant load of up to 300 seats are allowed at a height above 28 m in buildings with fire resistance category I and fire risk level of structure of S0 as long as requirements under A.2.4.

NOTE 3: If full-time cinemas and seasonal cinemas with different fire resistance categories are combined, they must be physically separated by type 2 fire-resistance-rated walls.

H.2.7 Sports buildings and structures

H.2.7.1 If indoor sports competition, indoor skating rinks, indoor pools (with or without bleachers), swimming training rooms, and indoor shooting ranges (below bleachers or in other public structures) are larger than values under Schedule H.2, fire-resistance-rated walls are required to separate these spaces from other rooms.

H.2.7.2 Bleachers of any capacity in F2.3 buildings must have fire resistance category of I and fire risk level of structure of S0 if spaces below bleachers accommodate auxiliary rooms of at least 2 storeys.

H.2.7.3 Floors below bleachers must be type 2 fire-resistance-rated floors.

H.2.7.4 If auxiliary rooms only take up one storey below bleachers or when there are more than 20 rows of benches on the bleachers, load bearing structures of bleachers must have a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 45, fire risk level of K0 and floors below the bleachers must be type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors.

H.2.7.5 Load bearing structures of sports structures (F2.3) which do not utilize spaces below bleachers and have between more than 5 and less than 20 rows of benches must be made from non-combustible materials with a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 15; have more than 20 rows of benches must be made from non-combustible materials with a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 45 and fire risk level of K0. In this case, combustible substances and materials must not be positioned below the bleachers. Load bearing structures of fixed bleachers in indoor (enclosed) sports structures with occupant load exceeding 600 people must have a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 60 and fire risk level of K0; occupant load between 300 people to 600 people must have a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 45 and fire risk level of K0; occupant load below 300 people must have a minimum fire-resistance rating of R 15 and fire risk level of K0 or K1. In this case, floors below bleachers must be made from type 2 fire-resistance-rated floors for bleachers with occupant load exceeding 600 people, type 3 fire-resistance-rated floors for bleachers with occupant load between 300 people and 600 people, and type 4 fire-resistance-rated floors for bleachers with occupant load below 300 people.

H.2.7.6 Minimum fire-resistance rating of temporary (mobile) bleachers shall be R 15 regardless of occupant load.

H.2.7.7 The aforementioned requirements do not apply to temporary audience seats positioned on sports courts when the sports courts change shapes.

H.2.8 Passenger terminals

H.2.8.1 Instead of separating passenger terminals with fire resistance category of I or II and fire risk level of structure of S0 into fire compartments using type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls, fire compartments can be separated into fire subcompartments with area compliant with Schedule H.2 (for rooms with similar fire risk categories by function) by drenchers or fire curtains with minimum fire-resistance rating of E 60. In this case, the aforementioned fire curtains and drenchers must be installed in areas so that there is no fire load within a 4 m radius in both sides of the fire curtains and drenchers.

H.2.8.2 Floor area contained within fire-resistance-rated walls (fire compartments) in airport terminals with fire resistance category of I can be increased to 10 000 m2 if there are no basements or existing basements (semi-basements) do not contain storage units or other rooms where combustible materials are located (other than storage spaces for belongings and clothing of staff, and rooms with fire and explosion risk classes of C4 and E). In this case, walkways from storage rooms of cleaning equipment in basements and semi-basements to the first storey can be positioned along open staircases. If such walkways lead from storage spaces, they must be positioned along separate staircases contained in enclosed stairwells. Storage rooms (other rooms where automated storage system is located) and clothing storage rooms must be physically separated from other sections of basements by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions and equipped with automatic fire extinguishing system while dispatch – command stations must be physically separated by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions.

H.2.8.3 Floor area contained by fire-resistance-rated walls in airport terminals and passenger terminals with fire resistance category of I and fire risk level of structure of S0 shall not be limited if automatic extinguishing system is installed.

H.2.9 Hospitals

H.2.9.1 Hospitals (F1.1) must be positioned in detached buildings or contained in separate fire compartments with maximum fire height of 28 m. Hospitals with 2 storeys or higher must have fire resistance category of I or II and fire risk level of structure of S0.

H.2.9.2 Single-storey hospitals may have fire resistance category of III and minimum fire risk level of structure of S1, in this case, the maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment must not exceed 2 000 m2 for buildings with fire risk level of structure of S0 and not exceed 200 m2 for buildings with fire risk level of structure of S1. Then, walls, partitions, and floors, including wood structures must have fire risk level of K0.

H.2.9.3 In-patient buildings of hospitals that are up to three-storey high must be divided into fire subcompartments whose maximum area is 1 000 m2 by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions. In-patient buildings that are higher than 3 storeys and in-patient buildings with fire risk level of structure of S1 must be divided into fire subcompartments whose maximum area is 800 m2 by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions.

H.2.9.4 Treatment wards for patients with mental illnesses and treatment wards of medical stations must have maximum fire height of 9 m, minimum fire resistance category of II, and fire risk level of structure of S0.

H.2.9.5 Nursing homes and care centers for persons with disabilities must be designed to meet fire safety requirements applied to hospitals.

H.2.10 General medicine examination and treatment establishments (F3.4)

H.2.10.1 Maximum fire height of out-patient general medicine examination establishments (F3.4) is 28 m. Fire resistance category and fire risk level of structure of establishments that are two-storey high or more must not be lower than II and S0 respectively.

H.2.10.2 Medical establishments that do not accommodate in-patient treatment can be located in single-storey buildings with fire resistance category of III and minimum fire risk level of structure of S1 as long as the maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment does not exceed 3 000 m2 for buildings with fire risk level of structure of S0 or not exceed 2 000 m2 for buildings with fire risk level of structure of S1. In this case, walls and partitions separating corridors and entrance halls from adjacent rooms, including wood structures, must have fire risk level of K0.

H.2.10.3 Out-patient general medicine examination rooms (F3.4) can be located in auxiliary sections of buildings with fire resistance category of II and minimum fire risk level of structure of S0. These rooms must not be located at a height above 28 m.

H.2.11 Sleeping accommodations of nursing facilities

H.2.11.1 Sleeping accommodations of nursing facilities must not be taller than 28 m.

H.2.11.2 Minimum fire resistance category and fire risk level of structure of sleeping accommodations of nursing facilities taller than 2 storeys must be II and S0 respectively.

H.2.11.3 Two-storey sleeping accommodations of nursing facilities can have fire resistance category of III and fire risk level of structure of S0.

H.2.11.4 The number of sleeping units in sleeping accommodations of nursing facilities with fire risk category of I and II and fire risk level of structure of S0 must not exceed 1 000, with fire risk category of III and fire risk level of structure of S0 must not exceed 150, and with other fire risk categories must not exceed 50.

H.2.11.5 Sleeping units for families with children in sleeping accommodations of nursing facilities must be positioned in detached buildings or separate building sections separated by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions, not taller than 6 storeys, and have exit access that are separate from other building sections. In this case, sleeping accommodations must have fire exits that meet any of the following requirements:

– The fire exits must lead to balconies or loggias where the clear width of solid wall from the outer edge of the balconies (or loggias) to windows (or glass doorways) must not be lower than 1,2 m or from one glass door that opens to the balconies (or loggias) to another must not be lower than 1,6 m; or

– The fire exits must lead to transition walkways with minimum width of 0,6 m and leading to adjacent building sections; or

– The fire exits must lead to balconies or loggias where external ladders connecting balconies and loggias of other storeys are installed.

H.2.12 Additional regulations applied to public structures under H.2

H.2.12.1 Load bearing structures of roofs of auxiliary sections adjacent to public structures mentioned under H.2.1 through H.2.11 (where a part can be located in the main buildings and a part is located outside of the main buildings) must have minimum fire-resistance rating of R 45 and fire risk level of K0.

H.2.12.2 If the entire buildings with fire resistance category of I and II and fire risk level of structure of S0 are equipped with automatic extinguishing system, area of fire compartment mentioned under Schedules H.2 through H.4 can be increased up to two times the specified values.

H.2.12.3 If a two-storey building section is contained within a fire compartment of a single-storey building under Schedules H.2 through H.4 and does not take more than 15% of building area, the fire compartment is considered a single-storey building.

H.2.12.4 Auxiliary sections of primary buildings such as roofs attached to the main buildings (porches, overhang roofs), courtyards, open corridors, and similar sections can have fire resistance category lower than fire resistance category of the main buildings by 1 category. In this case, fire risk level of structure of these auxiliary sections must not be lower than fire risk level of structure of the main buildings. In this case, fire resistance category of buildings whose roofs are attached to the main buildings, courtyards, and open corridors must equal fire resistance category of the main buildings; and area of a storey within a fire compartment must be calculated so as to include area of these auxiliary sections.

H.2.12.5 Fire-resistance-rated walls in entrance halls and waiting lounges larger than area specified under Schedule H.2 can be replaced by light-transmitting type 2 fire-resistance-rated partitions.

H.2.12.6 Wooden walls (wall surfaces), partitions, and ceilings of buildings with fire resistance category of V that are kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools, boarding schools, out-patient medical examination and treatment establishments, healthcare centers for children, and clubs (other than single-storey clubs with stone wall cladding) must be protected by fire protection measures.

H.2.12.7 If fire-resistance-rated walls cannot be installed in passenger terminals and buildings or rooms with similar occupancies and large spaces (shopping malls, atriums), fire-resistance-rated walls cane be replaced by drenchers which must be positioned into 2 lines that are 0,5 m away from the other with minimum intensity of 1 L/s for every meter in length of the drenchers (for both lines). Drenchers must be sustained for at least 1 hour. In addition, smoke spread between fire compartments must be prevented.

H.2.12.8 Libraries must not be taller than 28 m.

H.2.12.9 Maximum fire height at which lectures, auditoriums, conference rooms, meeting rooms, sports training grounds without audience, and other rooms with similar occupancies are allowed in buildings with any occupancy is specified under Schedule H.8 and based on fire resistance category, fire risk level of structure, and occupant load.

Schedule H.8 – Maximum fire height at which certain rooms are allowed

Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Occupant load Maximum fire height at which the room is located, m
I, II S0 ≤ 300 50
S0, S1 ≤ 600 12
S0, S1 > 600 9
III S0 ≤ 300 9
S0, S1 ≤ 600 3
IV S0, S1, S2, S3 ≤ 100 3
NOTE 1: Maximum height at which a room is allowed means the elevation of the first row of seat.

NOTE 2: The aforementioned rooms cannot be positioned higher than the second storey in kindergartens, preschools, retirement homes, care centers for persons with disabilities (other than suite-type), hospitals, sleeping accommodations of boarding education institutions, children facilities, children healthcare facilities (F1.1) or the third storey in schools (F4.1).

NOTE 3: Total occupant load of rooms on the same storey must not exceed the value specified under this schedule (unless the rooms are contained in different fire compartments).

H.3 Administrative – auxiliary buildings of manufacturing and storage facilities

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, maximum height of buildings, and area of a storey within a fire compartment of administrative – auxiliary buildings of manufacturing and storage facilities (buildings that are detached, adjacent, or contained in manufacturing or storage facilities, F4.3) are prescribed under Schedule H.2. Elevation of auditoriums, conference rooms, and meeting rooms under Schedule H.8 must be taken into account when determining fire resistance category of the buildings.

H.4 Manufacturing facilities and livestock, poultry, and animal husbandry facilities

H.4.1 Manufacturing facilities

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, maximum height of buildings, and area of a storey within a fire compartment of manufacturing facilities depend on fire and explosion risk classes under Schedule H.9.

Number of storey and area of a storey within a fire compartment of manufacturing facilities shall be determined in accordance with A.2.1 of Appendix A and H.6 of Appendix H. If technical openings are located on floors between storeys, total area of these storeys must not exceed storey area specified under Schedule H.9.

If automatic extinguishing measure is equipped for the entire manufacturing facilities, floor area within a fire compartment under Schedule H.9 can be increased up to two times the original values, except for buildings with fire resistance category of IV and V.

In regard to buildings with fire and explosion risk class of C in which class C1 rooms are located and occupy more than 1/2 the area of corresponding storey area, area of a storey within a fire compartment under Schedule H.9 must be reduced by 25 %.

Schedule H.9 – Manufacturing facilities

Fire and explosion risk class of building of fire compartment Maximum height of building 1), m Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2
Single-storey building Two-storey building Three-storey building or more
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
A 36 I, II S0 Any 5 200 3 500
24 III S0 7 800 3 500 2 600
No regulations IV S0 3 500
B 36 I, II S0 Any 10 400 7800
24 III S0 7 800 3 500 2 600
No regulations IV S0 3 500
C See 2)
48 I, II S0 Any 25 000

7 800 3)

10 400

5 200 3)

24 III S0, S1 25 000 10 400

5 200 3)

5 200

3 600 3)

18 IV S0, S1 25 000 10 400
18 IV S2, S3 2 600 2 000
12 V No regulations 1 200 600 4)
D 54 I, II S0 Any
36 III S0 Any 25 000 10 400
30 III S1 Any 10 400 7 800
24 IV S0 Any 10 400 5 200
18 IV S1 6 500 5 200
E 54 I, II S0 Any
36 III S0 Any 50 000 15 000
30 III S1 Any 25 000 10 400
24 IV S0, S1 Any 25 000 7 800
18 IV S2, S3 10 400 7 800
12 V No regulations 2 600 1 500
1) Building height under this Schedule is calculated from floor of the first storey to ceiling of the topmost storey, including mechanical floor; if elevation of the ceilings vary, average values shall be used. Only above-ground storeys are included for the purpose of determining number of storeys. Single-storey buildings with fire risk level of S0 and S1 shall not be limited in terms of height.

2) If an S0 building with fire resistance category of I does not satisfy height or fire compartment area requirements corresponding to the scale of manufacture, the latest edition of NFPA 5000 or equivalent standards are allowed for the purpose of determining height and maximum storey area within a fire compartment corresponding to fire-resistance rating of structures, structural elements, and other conditions. Fire-resistance rating of structures and structural elements in this case must not be lower than values specified under Schedule 4 in regard to buildings with fire resistance category of I.

3) Intended for wood processing and manufacturing facilities.

4) Intended for sawmills with up to 4 frames, wood preparation facilities and wood crusher stations.

NOTE: The “-“ symbol in the schedule indicates that a building with fire resistance category matching that on the same row is not allowed to have the same number of storey matching that on the same column.

H.4.2 Livestock, poultry, and animal husbandry facilities (F5.3)

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structure, maximum height of building, and area of a storey within a fire compartment of livestock, poultry, and animal husbandry facilities depend on fire and explosion risk classes and are prescribed under Schedule H.10 whereas those of class D buildings are specified under Schedule H.9.

Schedule H.10 – Livestock, poultry, and animal husbandry facilities

Fire and explosion risk class of building of fire compartment Maximum height of building 1), m Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2
Single-storey building Two-storey building Three-storey building or more
C 36 I, II S0 Any 25 000 10 400
18 III S0 25 000 10 400 5 200
12 IV S0, S1 25 000 10 400
12 IV S2, S3 2 600 2 000
8 V No regulations 1 200
E 36 I, II S0 Any
18 III S0 Any 50 000 15 000
18 III S1 Any 25 000 10 400
12 IV S0, S1 Any 25 000 7 800
12 IV S2, S3 10 400 7 800
8 V No regulations 2 600 1 500
1) Building height under this Schedule is calculated from floor of the first storey to ceiling of the topmost storey, including mechanical floor; if elevation of the ceilings vary, average values shall be used. Only above-ground storeys are included for the purpose of determining number of storeys. Single-storey buildings with fire risk level of S0 and S1 shall not be limited in terms of height.
NOTE 1: Area of storeys where birds and sheep are located can be increased to 1 800 m2 if the storeys are contained within fire-resistance-rated walls in class C single-storey buildings with fire resistance category of V.

NOTE 2: The “-“ symbol in the schedule indicates that a building with fire resistance category matching that on the same row is not allowed to have the same number of storey matching that on the same column.

H.5 Warehouses

H.5.1 Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, maximum height of building, and storey area within a fire compartment of warehouses (F5.2) depend on fire and explosion risk classes and are specified under Schedule H.11.

Schedule H.11 – Warehouses

Fire and explosion risk class of building of fire compartment Maximum height of building 1), m Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum area of a storey within a fire compartment, m2
Single-storey building Two-storey building Three-storey building or more
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
A No regulations I, II S0 5 200
No regulations III S0 4 400
No regulations IV S0 3 600
No regulations IV S2, S3 75 2)
B 18 I, II S0 7 800 5 200 3 500
No regulations III S0 6 500
No regulations IV S0 5 200
No regulations IV S2, S3 75 2)
C 36 I, II S0 10 400 7 800 5 200
24 III S0 10 400 5 200 2 600
No regulations IV S0, S1 7 800
No regulations IV S2, S3 2 600
No regulations V No regulations 1 200
E Any I, II S0 Any 10 400 7 800
36 III S0, S1 Any 7 800 5 200
12 IV S0, S1 Any 2 200
No regulations IV S2, S3 5 200
9 V No regulations 2 200 1 200
1) Building height under this Schedule is calculated from floor of the first storey to ceiling of the topmost storey, including mechanical floor; if elevation of the ceilings vary, average values shall be used. Only above-ground storeys are included for the purpose of determining number of storeys. S0 single-storey buildings with fire resistance category of I, II, and III are not limited in terms of height. Single-storey buildings with fire resistance category of IV with fire risk level of S0, S1 must not be taller than 25 m, fire risk level of S2, S3 must not be taller than 18 m (where height is determined from floor surface to the lower edge of load bearing structures of the roof)

2) Mobile buildings

NOTE 1: The “-“ symbol in the schedule indicates that a building with fire resistance category matching that on the same row is not allowed to have the same number of storey matching that on the same column.

NOTE 2: If a class C or class E warehouse with fire resistance category of I and fire risk level of S0 does not satisfy height or fire compartment area requirements corresponding to their scale, the latest edition of NFPA 5000 or equivalent standards are allowed for the purpose of determining height and maximum storey area within a fire compartment corresponding to fire-resistance rating of structures, structural elements, and other conditions. Fire-resistance rating of structures and structural elements in this cast must not be lower than the values under Schedule 4 in regard to buildings with fire resistance category of I.

H.5.2 In regard to warehouses where work platforms, supporting frames, and mezzanines are located, the number of storeys and storey area within a fire compartment shall be determined in the same manner as manufacturing facilities as stated under H.4.1. If openings are located on floors between storeys, total area of these storeys must not exceed values under Schedule H.10.

H.5.3 If the entire building is equipped with automatic extinguishing measure, floor area within a fire compartment can be increased up to two times the original values specified under Schedule H.11, except for buildings with fire resistance category of IV and V.

If warehouses are located in manufacturing facilities, warehouse floor area within a fire compartment and their height (number of storeys) must not exceed values under Schedule H.11.

H.5.4 Maximum area within a fire compartment of the first storey of multistorey warehouses can be determined in accordance with regulations applicable to singe-storey buildings if floor of the second storey is type 1 fire-resistance-rated floor.

H.5.5 Warehouses must not be taller than 28 m.

H.5.6 Warehouses of finished wood products are limited to only one storey with minimum fire resistance category of IV and fire risk level of structure of S0 and S1.

Fire resistance category, fire risk level of structure, and storey area within a fire compartment of warehouses of finished word products are prescribed under Schedule H.12.

If warehouses of finished wood products are equipped with automatic extinguishing measures, storey area within a fire compartment can be increased up to two times the values under Schedule H.12 except for buildings with fire resistance category of IV and any fire risk level and buildings with fire resistance category V. In this case, intensity and area serving calculation of amount of water or foaming agents must be increased by 10 %.

Schedule H.12 – Warehouses of finished wood products

Class of building Fire resistance category Fire risk level of structures Maximum area of a storey contained in a fire compartment, m2
C I, II, III S0 9 600
IV S0, S1 4 800
IV S2, S3 2 400
V No regulations 1 200

H.6 Calculation of fire compartment area

H.6.1 Buildings and fire compartments must have dimensions that fit their fire resistance category, fire risk level of structures, fire risk category by function, fire risk classes of technology lines in the buildings or fire compartments.

H.6.2 Fire compartment area shall be the largest area of a storey within a fire compartment.

Area of a storey within a fire compartment shall be area of floorspace limited by surrounding walls and/or type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls. This area shall be determined in a manner that complies with the following requirements:

– Area of a storey within a fire compartment shall be determined by inner circumference of surrounding walls of the storey and not include area of stairwells, unless otherwise specified. If surrounding walls are partially or entirely missing, the area above shall equal floor area;

– Area of a storey within a fire compartment of buildings connected via enclosed walkways, tunnels, or enclosed corridors must be determined by the sum of area of connected storeys and area of enclosed walkways, tunnels, or enclosed corridors;

– If openings are located on the floor of manufacturing and storage facilities (F5.1, F5.2, and F5.3), area of a storey within a fire compartment shall equal the sum of area of storeys connected by the openings.

– If ramps of enclosed parking garages are not physically separated, area of a storey within a fire compartment shall equal the sum of area of storeys connected by non-separated ramps;

– When determining area of a storey within a fire compartment in F1.1, F1.2, F2 through F4 buildings, area of attached roofs, courtyards, and corridors connected to the buildings must be included if such structures are not physically separated from main building sections by type 1 fire-resistance-rated walls;

If open staircases, escalators, atriums, and other occupancies are located in multi-storey spaces of F1.1, F1.2, F2 through F4 buildings, area of a storey within a fire compartment shall equal the sum of area of the bottommost storey of the multi-storey spaces and area of corridors, walkways, rooms of storeys above the multi-storey spaces within the space separated by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions. If multi-storey spaces are not physically separated from adjacent corridors and rooms by type 1 fire-resistance-rated partitions (even when substitutes such as fire curtains, drenchers, and similar devices are installed), area of a storey within a fire compartment shall equal the sum of area of corresponding storeys.

If multiple requirements above are combined, the least favorable storey area and building height shall prevail for buildings with corresponding fire risk level of structures.

If fire resistance category and fire risk level of structure cannot be determined, fire resistance category of V and fire risk level of structure of S3 shall serve as the basis for determining other fire safety requirements (fire separation distances and so on).

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